Postcard from the Edge of the Townland

This week, I met Brian, the writer.
I would never ever, ever, say this. Your text is past the point of rescue remedy. Complete Trollop’s. Never. Not ever. Always pour forth. You are getting there. I look forward to being a reader of your novel, printed and guillotined out of your mind, by Caesarian section, just in case the Manor Hamilton vet’s scan shows that there are two lambs in her uterus, Romulus and Remus. The Cotswold countryside is full of fecking fleecy sheep, Mr. Murphy.
The classroom, slow to react, was uncertain.
From Manor Hamilton mart, He continued, then sat down.
Is that paragraph good enough to pass your editor’s censorious picque.
Where the feck is the Cotswolds, again. The flautist piped up.
Let us pull out the map of Sasanach, and draw your fecking sheep on it, not on mine, your map, your hand drawn map, his teacher replied. Our understanding of their geography comes from the radio, the Cotswolds is silly mid-off when bowling from the Manchester end, wearing a woolly jumper on a scorching hot day. Overheated, he starts his run up at Hadrian’s wall. He is out, caught, by a snick to the first Cotswold. Mr Murphy the Irish Newsreader, is new to cricket commentating. He must have been left handed.
Republican lessons were going down a treat in the Corracloon School.
Brian had gone visiting over the weekend and had a new ally, receiving a book from an Alternative Ulster library on fungal taxonomy, the science of classification and the identification of the species from far flung country-sides from the Cotswolds to Barbuda.
The title of the fecking book, in a series of monographs on Humour Research had the bizarrely inappropriate title – A sence of humour. A thesis, read only once, by the poor author, so full of typos, which is so fecking funny, you cannot believe, I am serious, but I am.
Oberon, what is the problem. He is training to be the next dog in space.
Corracloona, we have a problem.
Oberon wants to go out for a space-walk.
Do not bother Mary or us.
Taxonomy is the great extinguisher of mirth, the next class, Mr. Murphy, thought ahead, almost for the first time in his life. Planning, scheming always, but thinking ahead. Never. In that stubborn, Ulster, blackberry bath of grey mould of a way, in a Penicillin prescription voice, that brings me on to Manor Hamilton, later on in the morning to return Library books, from that foetid stew that is his mind.
This week, I met Brian.
The bowl on his space ship is low in water and out of carrots, except there is a half, actually a smidgin less than a quarter of a carrot, still in his bowl, but there is no kibble.
I think we are getting there, closer to Corracloon.
The hermitage’s bedroom door is open. He puts his hand out and closes it.
The extraordinary happens.
Oberon pants vigorously after the aerobic exercise of barking continuously, while being ignored. Unlike Bran, he eats carrots quietly, in between barking.
He knows the story is not funny, and he is exhausted barking at me for offenses against the state of Oberon act. I read to him in my Richard Burton voice, as if it were Under Milk Wood. He sits by my side like a Manxian Panda, black and white with three and a half legs, settled, his gavel meeting out justice in camera in hermetic chambers. Oberon’s skill in justice extends to salami, which he found in a box of taxonomic collections left down to dry from Belmont’s picnic on Friday.
It is Monday. He looks to me to have the recess terminated, sitting, repositioned, back to the door.
‘Vivid Vivienne’s baskets from vimnalis in Vermont require Vermouth to soothe, explaining the benefit of the republic to the citizens of The States’ Mr. Murphy said. ‘The making of basket cases is our next class in Corracloon, Mr. Murphy continues. A class in home economics for your formation. ‘And Snowberry by the school yard grows native in Virginia, Symphytocarpus virginiana, continuing his taxonomy lesson, totally invasive, and unsuitable for making of baskets, but wreaths at Christmas perhaps, when it Snows on Killymanjaro.
Found your inner voice yet, Sir.
That is not funny.
Oberon, gnaws and licks in an attempt to soothe the itch of his underbelly mange, back to the door.
This week, I met Brian.
He is actually a writer. So much so, when he retired after his parents died and he bought an abandoned republican National School in Corracloon, to write in.

Corracloona,
Tuesday

Dear Brian,
Thank you for your hospitality in Corracloon on Saturday, and I trust you enjoyed your visit to our wee monastic hermitage in Corracloona by return, where our dogs eat carrots. Hope your dogs are well, especially the epileptic one. We enjoyed the homemade flapjacks and the black Earl Grey tea. Maria sends her Aubergine recipe from Manor Hamilton library.
Learning from you,
Regards,

Mr. Murphy.

800-850 words.

Oberon sounds suitable for the Angelus

He goes in the rushes. When he is done, he bursts through the tussocks, rustling back onto the path.
Come on, Obi!
He gets to the door first.
I look in the window passing, see Oberon up on the bed already, walk to the door and shutting it, the door clips home.
Oberon is now drinking in his room, lapping, a sound track suitable for the Angelus. He moved on and is now settled behind the kitchen door. His chin is on a floor mat, watching.
Five books are to go back to the Library, in the morning, to Manor Hamilton. They are laid out on the bed.
I cough and splutter. Moving, I sit on the bedside to continue writing.
Oberon repositions himself on the Leaba, watching the kitchen door, in more comfort.
I turn in, too, shedding my slippers, which might irritate him, into action.
Oberon resumes his watch, noticing my feet. He picks at the kibble spilled from the bed bound dish.
He looks over at Patricia Fitzgerald’s 2004 book From Pictures to Words, a guide to books for children, by a County Clare Librarian.
Oberon is wondering when Howard would write and illustrate a book to read to dogs at bedtime, especially for him.
He growls, now, as I type up this.
He gnaws at the duvet, grooming the sheets, a pelt satisfyingly mange free. He noses and tips the bowl and then, nose in, selects another kibble, with a deft sweep of his tongue.
My arm is like that of a right-handed swimmer, with the muscle on the back forearm, tightening with each progressing sentence.
Oberon sits. His ears follow the sound of the story on the radio, and the rubbing of my toes and feet together. Socks hang from the radiator.
Oberon descends from his perch, and I check on him, disturbing him in the process. He is nosing around my shoes and socks. He lies flat out on the tiled floor. He rises, checking on Maria sounds, emanating from the kitchen – pots moving between berths on the cooker’s ceramic rings.
Howard remembered that Mary said Jose called her a good cooker. Jose was a kid, brought over by a Spanish priest, who came to stay in Ballyanne. The priest of Rathgarogue, Father Frank had arranged for a Spanish exchange in the parish, and one of the kids in the group to stay with her, and be on his best behaviour, with his most trusted parishioner, Mary. In his gratitude, Hose’s innate Spanish humour, attempting to speak polite English, lives on in Mary’s mind.
Michael Murphy, the newsreader, another Spanish exile, writes poetry of emulating voices for the Beeb Four, with select vocabulary of perfectly pronounced language of Joanna Trollope, one could never find on Irish Radio at Montrose.
‘A Country Girl’ starts on the radio. Ah, the stage Irish …
Oberon began to breathe more regularly and dozes off. The radio reception tuning here North of Manor Hamilton leaves a lot to be desired, contrasted with kettle boiling noises … as the water temperature, and the steam pitch rises.
‘Howard’, she calls.
‘Yes’, he responds.
Maria lightly scrapes and thunks on some crockery on the cooker with a fork, as Howard imagines that she is plating up din-dins.
As the Beeb Four radio play proceeds, he ask ‘What is that tune?’
‘The Parting Glass’, she replies.
How interesting! Go on https://www.lichenfoxie.com; do the contemplation required, reflect on the meaning of …
din,
before and after din …
make a composition about din,
in a poetic mode of thought.
He awaits dinner … but cannot write for much longer.
That’s it, time is up. His arm feels that last surge to write.
Come on! She calls …
Coming …, coming …

Aubergines sliced and salted,
dabbed in cream flour,
as batter,
fried on a pan,
chilies for her,
none on his,
serving,
after swabbing in a dish …
of microwaved honey.

‘That’s the amazing thing about a recipe’, from a vegetarian cookbook from the Manor Hamilton Library, she began, ‘is that even if one might not have tried or tasted it before, when making dinner, recipes really work out, best’.
Mary’s daughter, Maria, is a good cooker.
Should we keep the cookbook out for another week, or bring it back, man yana?

736 words

Howard Fox
20th August 2019

Chewing a carrot at bedtime.

Dogs bark repeatedly and the sound fades from two farmyards away. A cow’s moo is calling attention to something unknown to me. Birds in the pine trees behind chirp and chirrup. Surrounding sounds are Dolbyesque, as the evening birdsong warbles through the air. A sheep bleats summonsing her lambs in the rushy field with the puncauns of purple moor grass.

A midge alights onto my nose and parades around a classified nostril as if it were a military parade ground, and then, without a salute or a signal, joins the air corps, and is off. The next one is curious about eyebrow hair; air force landing markings, stripes not lost on me either. The lens of my spectacles host another jump jet, as if my lens were a battleship air-craft carrier cruising through the air. My hand is drawn to my face to quell an itch; while a beetle settles on the whiter page, next for my scriptures, and draws in its underwings. Shrone sides washed with eye tear fluid soothes most irritations, except for the earlobes and inter thumb and palm skin. As I am wearing a poly tail, the back of my neck is accessible too, but not frequented by the flying squadrons, delicate hand rubs, over raspy bristle of my filtrum and cheek to chin jowls releases an itch which migrates around my core with perniciously high frequency. Hand signals, skin rubbing, hand clasping, pencil gripping writing aside, my other hand is fully occupied assuaging my forehead, inevitably disturbing stray hairs from my hair band and pony-tailed mop. One alighted up a trouser leg, the irritating bastard, and then a single hair from my head scribbled like a quivering stencil of an electrocardiogram meteing out a pattern below my spectacles on my stiff upper lip. In this Battle of Britain, nostrils, caverns of lubricosity are no deterrent to air-borne raids. My spectacles, with pads perched on my shrone, are rearranged, while the sound of the door closing warns me of the haste of my potential discovery, gallivanting, writing in pleain aeir, in the evening. The sun descends below the last cloud on the skyline, in an incandescent stripe of cadmium yellow, through a canopy of Birch above some yellow irises, green crocodile green, compared with the rushes in the foreground with their Saint Brigid’s cross florets and leaf tussocks like hedgehogs.

Nettles in the foreground too, make for wandering off-line, memorable. Now my supported leg is numb from the immobility of sitting in a captain’s chair composing this. The numb sleepy leg is immune to midges. Meanwhile a new irritation emerges between my big toe and the sandal strap, appealing for a foot massage to bleat it out of its misery. A ewe calls for sundown and her lamb bleats in response. The air squadron is thinning out. A bumble bee flies towards the sunset and irises. Thistles not yet out, and a few days short of blooming profusely, where the bumble bee flew from, he was heading, what is now upwind, as the sky darkens, and the cadmium line is expunged by a darker humid cloud.

Combs are my favourite hand tool. A body shop one graces my sporran. My thumbs and fingers massage my right foot’s toes, tugging at nails, removing stray skin flakes and otherwise soothes my anesthetized foot. Adidas striped pool slippers rest in the sheep-grazed grass, while in my right ear a battalion hisses and wing warps tiny sonic booms.

The skyline of Sitka Spruce holds a marvelous lilac clouds behind, while a droplet sensed, signals the advance of a low cloud from the west. Hairs on my skin, above my tarsals, are tugged by my sandal strap. A bugger has negotiated the boulder choke of the kneecap and joint and is now ensconced under my left hock, provoking a complete rearrangement of me in my chair. My numb foot, my numb butt, the groans of my bamboo chair in my resettling, tarsal squadrons, neck squadrons, hand pencil holding dynamic reactive squadrons clear for take-off. Ley grass with opposite florets with palea, glumes, lemma and short awns, wave in response to disturbance. A middle distance dipteran or micro-moth rises first white, and darkens as the sky becomes its backdrop.


Back at the house, Bran is incapable of chewing a carrot quietly. Meal time noises at a silent monastic refectory are politely tolerated, but Bran takes the biscuit. A midge in my ear never left the hangar, for his evening exercises. This was the last midge that lived before being rolled up into a Lake Victoria, Ugandan pate, what the dog might eat.

FOTG paper finalv3

FUNGI AND LICHENS OF THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDENS (NBG), GLASNEVIN, DUBLIN, IRELAND
Keywords: Arboretum, Biodiversity, City, Heritage Property, Species Inventory

Howard F. FOX
National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin D09 VY63, Dublin.
Maria L. CULLEN
Ballyanne, New Ross, County Wexford.
Mary J.P. SCANNELL († deceased 2011)
Former Keeper, Irish National Herbarium, National Botanic Gardens, Dublin.

Corresponding author: howard.fox@opw.ie

ABSTRACT
The National Botanic Gardens in Glasnevin was established in 1795. Since that time this 19 ha site has been an intensively managed mature arboretum and heritage garden site. For over two centuries, there has been biological recording of fungi and lichens at the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin.
Recording of fungi began in 1801 and this paper features a list of 536 species of fungi, including lichens, made from 1,813 records. The living collection lists of plants, the dead list of plants, maps of host tree locations, national and international databases, herbarium material, gardeners, archives, libraries were all consulted to create this inventory of species. The habitats of the site include woodland, glasshouses, a rockery, gardens and lawns. There is a meteorological station on site and its data were made available to this study. The climatic story and the site management history characterise the context of the local mycological biodiversity.
Fungal results show that, despite remarkably intensive scrutiny by mycologists, over a very long period of time, only a modest proportion (circa 30%) of County Dublin’s fungal and lichen species biodiversity recorded in recent decades has been noted from this site. Many species are noted only once. A wide range of independent observers contributed to the recording effort. As with all gardens, this is a dynamic location for plants.

INTRODUCTION
Geomorphology

TOLKA RIVER VALLEY IN GLASNEVIN
The Tolka River (Gaeilge An Tulcha, “the flood”) rises in Batterstown, Co. Meath and it flows approximately 30 km southeast, through Glasnevin and on to Clontarf where its small delta meets the sea. Flooding of the Tolka river valley occurs sporadically, partly because there are a large number of tributaries, even though the Tolka is a small, short river.
Water quality of the Tolka has improved in recent years and can now again sustain salmonid fish life. However, the river occasionally suffers acute pollution events. The most recent one was on 22-23 July 2014 due to a detergent spill upstream. The compromised water chemistry of the Tolka and its stream sediments has a bearing on the health of nearby soil, plants and trees by the river at NBG. This in turn can affect the mycorrhizal and parasite load potential with regard to fungal species in the affected area. One of the dead trees near the pond had a trunk fungus infection, and the millfield conifers host a very limited range of mycorrhizal fungi.

GEOLOGY
The geology of the Glasnevin area is dominated by Carboniferous limestone, a portion of the Lucan Formation, estimated to be 800m thick (Nolan 1985). Early workers called the rock “Calp(e)” limestone and this word is still used to describe the distinctive interbedded dark shale and limestone sequence of the Dublin Basin. The lithological sequence underlying the Glasnevin area is considered Visean in age, approximately 340 Million years old.
The sequence consists of dark grey massive limestones, shaley limestones, and massive mudstones and cherts are common. The average bed thickness is less than 1 metre, but these normally thin-bedded lithologies can reach thicknesses of 2m or more. Conjectural minor synclinal and anticlinal folds cross the city of Dublin with a general NE/SW orientation with some cross faulting. No large-scale cavitation has been observed in the “Calp” limestone though the Tolka River has trenched into the limestone all along its course. The alluvial flats of the Tolka River vary from 30 to 150 m in width and are well represented at Glasnevin.

PLATE 1. GEOLOGY MAP OF GLASNEVIN.

Legend:
Area outlined in red = National Botanic Gardens
Blue = Calp Limestone of Visean, Carboniferous Age
Beige = Alluvial material from the Tolka River of Quaternary Age

SOILS
The soils of the National Botanic Gardens are generally of Pleistocene post-glacial age derived from nearby calp limestone bedrock of alkaline nature. The soils of the river banks and the low-lying area in close proximity to the Tolka River (e.g. the Millfield) are alluvial in character. A recent urban soil study by GSI (SURGE) did not take samples from within the National Botanic Gardens grounds but the surrounding area was sampled.
Local soils are relatively enriched in the elements Mercury (Hg) and Nickel (Ni). Mercury (Hg) concentrations may be elevated in areas around crematoria due to the burning of dental fillings that were traditionally made from silver/mercury amalgam. Glasnevin Crematorium is adjacent to the grounds of NBG and so is indicated as the source of this high mercury value. Nickel (Ni) is considered to be geogenic, possibly from a Carboniferous volcanic body at depth in the area. In equivalent modern settings for subtropical reef development, there may be contemporaneous shallow hydrothermal venting and accumulation of Nickel in the vicinity. Nickel can be concentrated in plant material so the shale beds in the Glasnevin Calp Limestone may be the source for Nickel in the local soils.
Soils within the garden have recently been covered in some areas with bark mulch and wood chips, with some material imported from Dublin Zoo in the Phoenix Park and some originating from trees felled on site.

CLIMATE
Glasnevin, located at 53N and 6W, experiences a Temperate, Oceanic climate. Rainfall averages c. 720 mm per annum and annual air temperatures range generally between -3C and +25C. Since the early 20th century there has been a growing heat island effect in Glasnevin as Dublin city expanded and night lighting, home fires and motor traffic became more common. A ban on sulphur-rich coal, introduced to Dublin in 1990, has caused a significant improvement in air quality in the area.

GLASNEVIN HISTORY

THE PLACE NAME GLASNEVIN
Many placenames in Ireland are difficult to translate as they have gone through centuries of misspelling and Anglicisation. Glas Naíon is considered to be translated from Gaeilge as “Stream of Naidhe” or “Stream of the Infants” “glas” meaning green, Naidhe may have been a local chieftain’s name or “iníon” a young daughter.
Glasnevin is recorded as having been founded by St. Mobhi (sometimes known as Berchan) in the late fifth or early sixth century as a monastery. St. Mobhi established a school alongside the monastery at Glasnevin in the 6th century. Notable students mentioned in association with this school are St. Canice and St. Colmcille. The surrounding land was then managed under the Brehon Law of Irish local chieftains.

It is possible that Mobhi Clarachain who died in 544AD, during the plague of Justinian, suffered from exposure to aflatoxin in contaminated grain. Rapid demise through hepatitis-like liver failure and the associated yellow jaundiced pallor of victims are indicative of aflatoxin poisoning. The symptoms described have been attributed in history to this earliest recorded bubonic plague. Rats carrying disease travelled in compromised fodder and grain were transported greater distances because of poor weather and crop failure for several years in the 530s across Europe. The two issues worked together to cause the death of an estimated 25 million people. In fact Ergot poisoning has through history also been conflated with leprosy as several exposures to Claviceps purpurea (Ergot) can result in hallucinations, blood circulation issues, skin lesions, burning sensations and onset of gangrene in the extremities and ultimately death. Again, ingestion of grain contaminated with Ergotamine would have been difficult to avoid at times. It was a challenge to harvest clean grain and store it in a cool, dry place. In Ireland crops such as oats protected the natives from ergot poisoning as Avena is not affected by Ergot. Near Dublin, there was a more cosmopolitan community so rye, barley and wheat were available and grown in the drier East of Ireland and all of these were susceptible to Claviceps purpurea.
By 822 Glasnevin, and adjacent areas had become the farm for Christ Church Cathedral and it seems to have maintained this connection up to the time of the Reformation that established the Protestant Church in Europe.
The Norman King of England Henry II was invited to Ireland. He arrived in 1171, took control of much land, and then parcelled it out amongst his supporters. Glasnevin ended up under the jurisdiction of Finglas Abbey. St. Laurence O’Toole, Archbishop of Dublin, took responsibility for Glasnevin and tt became the property the Holy Trinity (Christ Church Cathedral). From St. Mobhi’s time onward, the land that eventually became the National Botanic Garden continued in Church usage. Wheat and barley were grown and milled for the Holy Trinity Church centred about Christchurch Cathedral located on the bank of the River Liffey in modern Dublin city centre, 3km to the south of the National Botanic Gardens. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Catholic Church property and land was appropriated to the new Church of England, and monasteries (including the one at Glasnevin) were forcibly closed and fell into ruin. Glasnevin had at this stage developed as a village, with its principal landmark and focal point being its “bull-ring” noted in 1542.
In Richard Francis’ Map of 1640 Glasnevin contained the Great Meadow, Lord’s Mede or Dean’s (Drishoge), a Water Mill, the Mill Field or Vicar’s Meadow of Christ Church and the Great Farm (north of the Tolka). Edward Wickam owned the Delville area, as it later was to become.
By 1667 Glasnevin had expanded to a village of 24 houses. Warfare, the frontier conditions of colonial life in Ireland and recurring outbreaks of plague have been cited as particular difficulties. Sir John Rogerson built his country residence, “The Glen” or “Glasnevin House” outside the village on top of the hill to the north of the National Botanic Gardens. The house still stands and has been incorporated into convent buildings. Planters like the powerful and wealthy Lindsay family (18th C Bishop of Kildare and Dublin based at Christ Church) became influential to the evolution of the lands that would become a fledgling Botanic Gardens in Glasnevin. In the neighbourhood of Glasnevin there developed a small number of villa houses with extensive gardens all with views to the south of Dublin city.
Although previous lobbying had failed, Walter Wade was successful in securing a commitment from the devolved Irish Grattan Parliament (established in 1782) to establish a Botanic Garden for Ireland. This project was under the auspices of the Dublin Society, later the Royal Dublin Society (RDS) after the Act of Union in 1800, when decision-making over Ireland returned to the London Parliament at Westminster. This reversal of a level of autonomy for Ireland was in response to the failed 1798 war inspired by the French Revolution and the concept of Irish Nationhood followed by the wish for Irish institutions.

HISTORY OF GARDENS AT GLASNEVIN
The National Botanic Gardens at Glasnevin in the north city of Dublin were founded in 1795. Funds had been made available to purchase a plot of land. The Delville Estate at Glasnevin, which had decades earlier been the celebrated garden of Patrick Delany (Anglican Dean of Down) and his wife Mary, was selected but the sale fell through. Not wishing to lose a prestigious project such as a botanical garden from the area, a sizeable land holding on the southern bank of the River Tolka was purchased, possibly from the family of Gregory Byrne, merchants in Dublin city. At the time, Glasnevin was home to a number of villas, large suburban houses with gardens, and a significant population of largely undocumented labourer tenants. Since the 6th century Glasnevin had been held largely as church lands. With the Norman influence from the 12th century, the land was included in a feudal system of management and became a farm of the Trinity estate with Christchurch Cathedral as its focus. After the Reformation, Christchurch became an Anglican Cathedral and the owners of plots and the main tenants were English planters with some being Huguenot and Norman Irish in provenance. Native Irish were displaced and listings of tithe payments from the time recorded few Irish names, as a combined consequence of replacement by immigrants and their invisibility in English records as non-Anglicans.

In the Glasnevin area, characters such as Sir John Rogerson had a significant influence in the 18th century. He was a speculator and, where he went, money and development followed. Rogerson initiated the villa model at Glasnevin House and this style of development was replicated on both sides of the River Tolka. In the mid and late 18th century, the local villas were occupied by notable and literary personalities. Several alumni of Kilkenny College went on to be major figures in Dublin society and they appear to have kept in touch e.g. Jonathan Swift and George Berkeley, the latter whose family owned property in the area. Mrs. Dorothy Berkeley left what was to become Delville to Richard Helsham and Patrick Delany. Patrick lived at Delville with his second wife Mary Pendares (nee Granville) who was very well connected, being a niece of the first Lord Landsdown and quite a socialite. Mary knew such a range of people from Dean Swift and King George III to Fanny Burney and George Handel! Her diaries and paintings, as well as writings and artworks of visiting friends, portrayed life, experiences and attitudes of Dublin at the time.

Although Mary Delany’s garden was well regarded, a more direct influence on the site that would become the National Botanic Gardens was Bishop Charles Dalrymple Lindsay. He was a younger brother of the Earl of Belcarres, and was from Fife, Scotland. As a younger son, he joined the Anglican Church and developed his own career, becoming Bishop of Killaloe in the west of Ireland before being installed as Bishop of Dublin. Lindsay embellished Glasnevin House after the Rogerson and Mitchell families had developed the house and grounds. He was, through the Dalrymples, linked to the Admiralty and the East India Company. Through Lindsay, various Scottish influences were introduced to Glasnevin. Plants were supplied to Ninian Niven, who was originally from Stirling. There was also a connection with John Tweedie who was firstly a gardener at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. Later John Tweedie moved to Argentina near Buenos Aires and conducted botanical studies in different areas of South America. Societal contacts and introductions were most important, and a wide network of potential sources of material for the fledgling Botanical Gardens was available through Bishop Lindsay. Charles’ daughter-in-law, Mary, was sister of 4th Earl of Arran, Philip Gore who became a diplomat, serving in Sweden, France and Portugal before his role as Chargé d’Affaires to Argentina. Philip Gore may have introduced John Tweedie to Charles Darwin and Robert Fitzroy when they met in Buenos Aires after the Beagle pulled into town in 1832. It is possible that South American potatoes were sent by Philip Gore’s contacts to Ninian Niven in the 1830s for experiments on potato diseases at Glasnevin. Niven won second prize in an RDS essay competition in 1846 – he wrote insightfully on how to distinguish between two diseases of potatoes – Black Leg, a bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum and Potato Blight, a fungus, Phytophthora infestans. Work continued on potato blight by Niven’s successor at NBG, another Scottish Director, David Moore. In the 19th Century, David Moore corresponded with Miles Berkeley regarding the identity of potato blight. Frederick Moore, David’s son, and himself a Director of NBG, corresponded with George Massee in London. In the 20th Century Maura Scannell had a rich correspondence with members of staff at the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew and at the then Commonwealth Mycological Institute also at Kew. Loaning of material for monograph preparation, revisions and other work has been part of the supportive tradition among the National Herbarium network of the world.

Identification of fungi is initially carried out in the field on fresh material as the larger fleshy fungi tend to spoil quickly after collection. Herbarium specimens of fungi are seldom curated for posterity due to the difficulties inherent in dealing with very perishable material. As with vascular plants, a small number of people familiar with curation methods for herbarium collections contribute the majority of national collections. Specialists in fungi, mycologists, should document the taxonomic characters of samples prior to drying so as to provide evidence that will later assist in validation, confirmation and more accurate revisions of their identifications if required. This labour intensive method is why critical fungal identification is rarely completed to herbarium packet stage and is generally the domain of taxonomic specialists. The identification of a fungus can be based on examination of dried herbarium material, especially spore samples. When there is a difficulty in arriving at a Latin name for a particular fungus, a sample may be posted for identification to specialists overseas. This sort of sharing and mutual support within the global scientific community of taxonomists continues to this day. Individuals collaborating in this fashion may never meet or visit the sites from whence the fungal material was originally gathered.

The documentation of wild fungi living in the grounds of any botanic gardens is facilitated by specialists in fungal identification being employed in some of the world’s national and regional botanic gardens (Arvidsson 1991). In our case, in the history of the Irish institution, two staff of the National Botanic Gardens in Dublin have been mycologists – Maura Scannell (fl. 1970-1989) and Howard Fox (fl. 1998-2007; 2010-date). Other staff have made contributions to mycology as plant pathologists, for example David Moore (fl. 1845-6) and Ninian Niven (fl. 1845-6) during the Irish potato famine and Frederick Moore (fl.1880s-1910s) who studied fungi on exotic orchids that grew and flowered in Glasnevin.
Over the years, many species new to science have been described from type specimens collected in botanic gardens from around the world. In this category Dothiorella davidiae is a fungus described new to science with a type collection made by Maura Scannell from the botanic gardens in Dublin. This species is common in the grounds and has been frequently recollected during the 1970s and 1980s and it still persists today. This species remains to be detected in the host plant’s native country; China.
In visits to foreign countries, mycologists visit botanic gardens to make local contacts and usually to collect a few specimens in the grounds of botanic gardens. For example, in our case, fungal specimens have been collected by Ashborn Hagen (rusts), Bruce Ing (microfungi) and Jerry Cooper (microfungi) during their mycological survey visits to Ireland. Some collectors have lodged specimens back in DBN from the grounds after identifying their material, a very worthy practice.

Habitats

The current habitats in the botanic gardens comprise numerous landscape elements such as parkland trees, amenity lawns, shubberies, a rockery, flower beds, compost heaps, glasshouse plantings, greenhouse pot collections, tarmac roads, brick & plastered buildings with slated roofing and old limestone walls. Fungi grow on substrates in most of these landscape elements.

Ecosystem Disturbance

The main issue with any garden is mobility of substrate. Almost any surface can host lichens if left stable for a long period of time, from say 6 months to many years. The National Botanic Gardens are not a natural ecosystem for fungi. It diverges from nature in several notable ways. Firstly, it has a concentration of geographically diverse plants from different climatic zones grown in the gardens. Secondly, the ecosystem is subject to chronic disturbance by busy gardeners whose work it is to continuously sow, pot, repot, plant out, grow, prune and remove plants. Thirdly, dead plant material is generally gathered and removed, not left to rot and decay naturally, hence the natural ecological role of fungi as recyclers is hygienically, mechanically and manually bypassed. Both pruning of woody and dead herbaceous substrates and removal of shrubs occurs routinely so that plant record keeping is difficult to keep up to date. Soil disturbance on this scale in a shrubbery or beneath trees may be detrimental to mycorrhizal fungi in some areas. Sensitive fungi tend to occur most frequently in stable parts of this urban landscape such as on lawns with trees and on long-term indoor glasshouse plantings.
From the perspective of an ecosystem, despite the richly documented fungal diversity of the National Botanic Gardens, gardens in urban settings with large numbers of staff, unlike unmanaged nature reserves or gardens with few or no maintenance staff, never can be conservation areas for all of their fungi. At best, fungi in botanic gardens are transient due to the mobility of plants and soil in these spaces and also because fungi are not high on most botanic gardens management priority lists.

Dawyck Botanic Gardens, Scotland is the principal botanic garden with a documented fungus reserve and this site was primarily a success because of the dedication of mycologist and herbarium keeper Prof. Roy Watling.

Traditionally in a botanical garden, there is a high turnover of plant substrates, and many genera of plants with the potential to host fungi are present in small quantity for a relatively short period of time. As the natural aesthetic of a host plant is compromised by fungal attack, from the perspective of any gardener responsible for the unfortunate plant, the traditional response to a fungal infection is to remove and destroy the infected plant for reasons of good practice of hygiene and limiting disease infections.

Botanical Surveillance Intensity

As gardeners are usually outdoors or in greenhouses and as they are naturally observant people when it comes to plants, not much happens in the National Botanic Gardens that is not observed, given that it is a manicured public space visited by 500,000 people annually. A transitory appearance of a fungus for a day is more likely to be noticed in a botanical garden than in another location. Gardeners who interact with infected plants sometimes are curious as to the identity of the causal agent. Over the years, gardeners have brought fungi to the attention of a staff or local mycologist.

HISTORY OF FUNGAL RECORDING AT NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDENS AT GLASNEVIN
Since its inception in the late 18th century, the National Botanic Garden of Ireland at Glasnevin, in Dublin, has been a site of occasional study for fungi. Walter Wade, who was a main proponent for an Irish Botanical Garden made the first mycological records around the grounds. These records were made between 1800 and 1804, before fungal systematics had been properly organised by Elias Fries. Since that time fungal species have been recorded in an ad hoc pattern for the most part from the grounds. 70% of records were made by the three authors while others made the rest. One species Dothiorella davidiae found by Maura Scannell was described new to science.
This study demonstrates the additional biodiversity, the present threats to plant health and the educational potential of having mycological expertise as part of the botanical capacity of a National Botanic Garden (Maura Scannell (fl. 1970-1989) and Howard Fox (fl. 1998-to date). Mutual support, between these National Botanic Garden mycologists and gardener colleagues as well as with other taxonomic specialists, working locally and globally, is important in carrying out this kind of temporal longitudinal study and site-specific biodiversity work. Now that data are available on tree removal due to fungal diseases, it is possible to assess risks and threats in a more coherent manner. For example, the spread of Armillaria genus in NBG is a significant issue for the health and integrity of the arboretum. Identification of areas and hosts of mycological significance can lead to a level of protection for mycologically diverse sections of the grounds.

HABITATS IN THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDENS
The current habitats in the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin comprise numerous landscape elements such as parkland trees, amenity lawns, shubberies, a rockery, flower beds, compost heaps, glasshouse plantings, greenhouse pot collections, tarmac roads, brick & plastered buildings with slated roofing and old limestone walls. Fungi grow on substrates in most of these landscape elements. The main issue with any garden is mobility of substrates. Almost any surface can host lichens if left static for a period of many years. In the gardens, we use bark mulch and wood chip both from the gardens and purchased from Irish and overseas sources – and these are a potential source of introduced fungi.

HABITAT CHANGE IN GARDENS
The ecosystem of a Botanical Garden is subject to chronic disturbance by busy gardeners whose work it is to continuously sow, pot, repot, plant out, prune and move plants. Dead plant material is generally gathered and removed, not left to rot and decay naturally, hence the natural ecological role of fungi as recyclers is mechanically and manually bypassed. Both pruning of woody and dead herbaceous substrates and removal of shrubs occurs routinely so that it is not possible to keep plant records up to date. Soil disturbance on this scale may be detrimental to mycorrhizal fungi in some areas. Sensitive fungi tend to occur most frequently in more stable parts of this urban landscape such as among lawns with trees in the arboretum and on long-term glasshouse plantings.

Conservation of species
The perception among conservationists of the relative importance of (1) native natural habitats and (2) rural low intensity farmed landscapes and (3) urban university campuses, was pointed out clearly by Aldo Leopold in his 1949 inspirational and classic book ‘Sand County Almanac’.

Given the progression of the 20th and early 21st centuries in Ireland, there have been relatively successful efforts to conserve native natural habitats with National Nature Reserves, National Parks amongst others. There are political threats however to the legal instruments that under-pin conservation of native natural habitats. There has been a general societal failure in Ireland to conserve low intensity farmed landscapes. One exception is perhaps in The Burren, in north-west county Clare, with the Burren LIFE project. The Horizon 2020 document, tactically defined by politicians as a strategy document, and thus not requiring environmental impact assessment and concomitant ecological scrutiny, has subsequently been stated to have an identity as a policy document, in documents connection with the economic development of the Irish dairy industry.
There has been considerable social and political pressure to conserve green belts by urban district councils with planning to protect selected sites from urban infill development and to maintain culturally important urban gardens and parks. Biodiversity can help provide a rationale for conservation. The papal encyclical ‘Laudato Si, On Care for our Common Home’ of Pope Francis calls Christian civilisation to ecological morality that supports conservation of all life. From Kingston et al. (2003) in a study of urban biodiversity of about 20 sites in the South County Dublin area, we know only one site yielded >500 species in total. The fact that the Glasnevin site has a solely fungal biodiversity of >500 species indicates this site is uncharacteristic from a cultural, sociological or environmental management point of view. Cherishing an urban site for its fungal and lichen biodiversity is at odds with our ethical views on the priority of the conservation of native natural habitats, which conserve their species at high population densities. This investigation of the fungal and lichen biodiversity an urban arboretum and botanic garden in Dublin does not challenge our belief in Aldo Leopold’s 1949 assertion, because we are confident that there are devastatingly low species temporal and spatial density metrics in urban habitats yet to be derived from our data.

4. THE MYCOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS

PAST COLLECTIONS (1800 – 1970)
From a mycological perspective, twelve fungi are named in Wade (1804) as being from the grounds of the National Botanic Gardens in Glasnevin. The identity of these fungal names in relation to early 21st century names (Cannon et al. 1985, Legon & Henrici 2006 and Index Fungorum) is not so straightforward to ascertain. Only 7 species can be reassigned without issue, while for the remaining 5 species the current interpretation here is more tentative.
Connections within society were most important in advancement but also in the sharing of scientific knowledge and materials. Bishop Charles Lindsay was younger brother of the 6th Earl of Balcarres in Fife and later his daughter-in-law was a Gore, sister of the Scottish Lord Arran. Through his extended family connections Lindsay knew Iberian traders, Scottish gardeners and South American diplomats. Lindsay may have been the societal connection linking RBG Edinburgh gardener and plant collector in South America John Tweedie, Philip Gore the British Representative in Argentina, Charles Darwin a visitor to Buenos Aires and Ninian Niven, the Director at NBG in the 1830s. It is possible that potatoes being researched for black leg and potato blight diseases in Europe were sent from Argentina to Dublin for study by Niven and Moore. Tweedie, it appears from Charles Lindsay’s correspondence, had sent seed and plant material to John Foster (Grattan Parliament) and Niven (Director) when they were involved at NBG.
The observations led Niven to believe that another ‘apart altogether’ disease was involved. The failure of the potato in 1832, 1833 and 1834 he attributed to ‘dry rot’ after he first noted signs of the epidemic in July 1845. He differentiated clearly between ‘dry rot disease of the tubers’ (Fusarium), which destroys growth upwards’ and ‘wet rot’ or ‘leaf disease or blight (Phythophthora), which destroys growth downwards’. He referred to the seedlings of 1845 and 1846 which he said ‘have been equally infected with leaf disease, as have plants from tubers: whereas the seedlings that I raised on experimental ground, in the Royal Dublin Society’s Gardens at Glasnevin in 1834 at the time I instituted my first experiments, were not at all infected with root disease then prevalent; but were without exception, sound and perfect as could be desired’. He proceeded to describe the ‘apart altogether disease’, – ‘it is one similar to that called ‘Black leg in the cruciferous or cabbage family, and is a decay, or cancerous-like drying up of the external bark, at the bottom of the stem … the result … is not blotching but flagging of the leaves … then a yellowing … [it] may be found accompanying the present epidemic, but more generally separate from it; nor is it an uncommon circumstance that the disease should be found acting at the same time … I think the two have been confounded’. Bacterial soft-rot of Black-leg is indicated. Niven’s contribution has been overlooked by scientists and by social historians. Muskett (1976), in a chapter on the history of mycology and plant pathology before 1900, makes no mention of Niven. Bourke (1966) drew attention to Niven’s ‘important and percipient’ work, and noted that Niven established ‘beyond all doubt that black-leg was known in Ireland prior to 1845’. Bourke concluded that ‘the letter of Niven, published in 1846, disposed of the assertion of Whitehead et al. (1945) that the disease was first known in Ireland in 1907.’

POTATO BLIGHT
Scientific studies were undertaken in Ireland into cause of the “Great Hunger”. David Moore’s writings, especially his correspondence with the Reverend Miles Berkeley, demonstrated that he accepted the theory that the potato murrain was caused by a parasitic fungus (Nelson 1995: 15). Moore first noted the disease in August 1845 and studied the biology of the disease intensely. Initially Moore thought the fungus, later named Phythophthora infestans, was an effect of the disease. After experimentation, he changed his view.
Moore demonstrated that he was converted to the fungal theory of potato blight in a letter to M.J. Berkeley on 29th July 1846 (Nelson 1983: 254).

LATE 19th CENTURY TO MID 20th CENTURY MYCOLOGY
During the 1870s, several fungal collections were made in Glasnevin by staff. Leucoagaricus badhamii and a Leucocoprinus species were noted in glasshouses. Marasmius rotula was seen. Sphaeria keitii was described as new to science from rotten rope and Dictyosporium toruloides was noted on Coccoloba macrophylla and Nepenthes hookeri. Volutella ciliata was noted on Bilbergia. In the 1880s, Torula pinophilum was noted on a glycerine bottle stopper.
On Wednesday 23rd September 1925, a party from the British Mycological Society, while attending the Dublin Foray, visited the National Botanic Gardens. Members who had been to Glasnevin brought samples of Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii on Picea pungens to England. Species noted for National Botanic Gardens included Ascochyta nymphaeae, Ramularia nymphaearum and Ramularia rubella.
In the 1940s and 1960s, Ashborn Hagen studied rusts in the National Botanic Gardens, yet these records remained unknown to Dublin mycologists until 1999 (Gjaerum 1998).

PRESENT COLLECTIONS (1970 – now)
THE MODERN PERIOD FROM 1970
Over the years records were made by various visitors to National Botanic Gardens and these along with more long-term recorders are documented in the comprehensive list of fungal records.
Detailed study of wild fungi in the Glasnevin district of Dublin was initiated in the early 1970s by Maura Scannell, keeper of the herbarium. She screened the fungal herbarium for specimens from the National Botanic Gardens and maintained a card index of records from the mid 1970s until she retired in 1989. Lichens were surveyed in April 1976 but few records were published (Seaward et al. 1978). Lichens and fungi were identified subsequently by Maria Cullen and Howard Fox during walks and identification courses.
Identification of fungi is initially carried out in the field on fresh material and the larger fleshy fungi tend to spoil quickly after collection. Herbarium specimens of fungi are seldom curated for posterity due to the difficulties inherent in dealing with drying very perishable wet material often insect larva infested carpophores with water soluble pigments that discolour and stain paper during the drying process.
An extensive body of mycological literature, including Muskett (1976), was reviewed for this paper. The proceedings of the Dublin Microscopical Club reported in the Irish Naturalist were fruitful sources.
Microscopic facilities in the National Botanic Gardens in Dublin are suitable for the determination of some fungi. Facilities for the lower fungi, and fungal cultures will have to be developed as required. Some critical determinations were made in the 1970s and 1980s and confirmed for Maura Scannell by research staff working in the laboratories of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the laboratories of the Commonwealth Mycological Institute in Kew in London.

Detailed study of wild fungi in the Glasnevin district of Dublin was initiated in the early 1970s by Maura Scannell, keeper of the herbarium. She screened the fungal herbarium for specimens from the National Botanic Gardens and maintained a card index of records from the mid 1970s until she retired in 1989. Lichens were surveyed in April 1976 but few records were published (Seaward et al. 1978). Lichens and fungi were identified subsequently by Maria Cullen and Howard Fox during walks in the grounds and on identification courses.
The information on coelomycetes and hyphomycetes is more thorough here than at any other site surveyed in Ireland. These microscopic fungi are a challenge and laborious requiring hand sectioning and microscopy to determine. Literature dealing with these groups include Oudemans (1919-1924) as a host index, Grove (1935, 1937) for descriptions, Ellis (1971, 1976), Ellis & Ellis (1985) for descriptions and Sutton (1980) for line drawings and descriptions. They require resolution of minute features of conidiogenesis. Maura Scannell corresponded with mycologists such as B Sutton, A Sivanesan & E Punithalingam, on the staff of Commonwealth Mycological Institute in London and they were most helpful to her in making determinations.
Ascomycetes are poorly known from the gardens as the site is not a safe habitat for discomycete forms due to the continuous removal of dead herbaceous litter from the grounds. For aid with identification of ascomycetes, Maura Scannell received assistance from B Spooner and RWG Dennis at Kew.

RECENT FIELDWORK ON FUNGI
Fieldwork to survey fungi in the gardens has been sporadic but frequent since 1998. The authors have maintained a working knowledge of the fungi on file and a desideratum list of other species, recorded in County Dublin, worth looking for that might turn up if suitable hosts are detected growing in the grounds of the National Botanic Gardens. The agenda item of making a listing of species vouched and otherwise verified from Glasnevin (Grid reference O 1537) has been actively maintained for at least 20 years by the 3 authors.

How data were collected – frequency etc.
How data was analysed and collated

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Methods employed included a combination of reading and abstracting, field surveying, digital photography and selected specimen collection, and specimen identification to species using standard mycological literature. Research materials consulted included: a ‘Fungi records card index’ (Scannell et al., fl. 1970 to 1989); catalogues of fungal species abstracts from printed papers (Muskett & Malone 1978 to 1985); herbarium voucher specimens in DBN herbarium; herbarium register and accessions archives (1902 to 2017); mycology bibliographies (Muskett 1976, Mangan 2008, Mitchell 1971, McCarthy & Mitchell 1992); mycology field records (HF, MC, garden staff and students, etc.); mycology species identification literature (Phillips 1981, 2007, Moser 1981, Nordic Macromycetes 1999-2003, Duncan 1970, Dobson 2005, Fungi of Switzerland 1984-2012); and OPW computer files (NBG server, Jebb 2001, 2009, Brennan 2009 to 2015).

PLANT RECORDS AND HOSTS FOR FUNGI
In the National Botanic Gardens, accessions have been assiduously logged for many years by staff responsible for plant records. Since 1998, a computerised dataset listing the planting out destination of plants within the grounds has been generated. The woody plants of fixed abode have been given a location code and a mapped plant number and these codes have been plotted on maps for the various sections within the gardens. This map of the living plant collection has been published as an online catalogue.
As the locations of plants have been plotted by plant records, the sampling of hosts was considered be a good starting point in the search for novel fungi at Glasnevin. However, this quest for fungi by host is slower than traditional methods of opportunistic foraging because, when located, a potentially interesting host plant has no infection. Were it to be infected by a fungus, the host would be removed and destroyed unless the parasite was small, inconspicuous and undetected by garden staff. A case in point was the removal and destruction of a hundred year old Bay tree (Laurus nobilis) in the fronts which was home to host-specific fungi, several of which were first Irish records.

Location within the grounds
Names of places were as used by Liz Brennan and the plant records office. Hard landscapes were given the names in use by general operatives, craft gardeners, charge hands, foremen and other staff if known. The mapping system of letter codes for 72 lawns is used.
Substrate
The substrate bark was used for corticolous lichens, where details were absent. The set of words used can be adjusted but without commas if possible so bark of twig, bark of branch, bark of trunk, bark of bough, wood, lignum, stick, leaf, leaf petiole, bark of twig dead attached and so on. Saxicolous lichens are not automatically supplied with rock types of substrate – granite, limestone, tarmacadam, concrete, ashlar lintels and so on.
Host plant
Woody plants with dependent lichens, parasitic fungi, saprophytes, on them or under them. Some herbaceous plants are listed for rusts and mitosporic fungi.
Plant number
A National Botanic Garden plant number (see Jebb 1999) in use in 2014 is cited where possible, from online section maps, plant lists, website lists and catalogue information. Transcription from garden labels, in situ, labels made by George Phillips and predecessors, John Watson and Barney Brown. The plant record numbers, plant names, locations in the grounds, location code numbers, place names and so on are as computerized by Liz Brennan.

PRINTED AND ONLINE SOURCES ON FUNGI
Information sources to construct a fungal species inventory of the grounds were reviewed. These sources included institutional computer files, a public lecture, online biological records, legacy printed literature, presented specimens, ad hoc fieldwork, collected specimens, digital and slide photographs.

Methods
A table of records was made with 18 fields. This table was then summarised. The data was consolidated and duplication edited out for information from multiple partial sources.
A handwritten card index ‘Catalogue of Irish fungi post 1950’ for circa 600 species was considered and data abstracted for circa 150 species noted from the National Botanic Gardens grounds.
Mapping scheme species data for raster square O13 for lichens, fungi and myxomycetes was downloaded from the NBN gateway. Species records were traced as far as possible in the literature and online to their sources and provenance. Information originating from North Bull Island (Jeffrey et al. 1977) was excluded, and an archived mapping scheme card listing 43 species from an April 1976 visit to the National Botanic Gardens in the DBN herbarium was catalogued.
A mycorec dataset compiled by the authors from 2002 to 2005 was an initial source.
Targeted field studies to enhance the knowledge of the fungi of the grounds included lichen mapping, agaric surveying, and general collecting on a sporadic and opportunistic basis. Circa 1000 field observations were made, and a portion of these observations were vouched by samples that were collected, curated and retained for the DBN herbarium collection and the authors’ herbaria.
The County Dublin information for 902 species on FRDBI was reviewed. This yielded a total of 42 records for 29 fungal species from the grounds of National Botanic Gardens.
The 3,100 or so fungal species distribution accounts in Muskett & Malone’s 1978 to 1985 ‘Catalogue of Irish Fungi’ were read. County Dublin records (H21) listing Glasnevin as a locality for first records were abstracted with their Muskett (1976) bibliography numbers.
For myxomycetes, the following resources were considered – Lister (1912), Lister (1926), Ing & Mitchell (1980), Ing & McHugh (1988) and McHugh’s (2012) distribution accounts for circa 210 Irish species.
From 1,350 lichen and lichenicolous fungi species distribution abstracts, the catalogues of Pim (1878), Knowles (1929), and the species listed for County Dublin by Fox (2001) and Seaward (1984, 1994, 2010) were also considered.

Titles of 3,301 bibliography entries noted in Muskett (1976), Mangan (2008), Mitchell (1971) and McCarthy & Mitchell (1992) were screened for relevance on the basis of potentially reporting County Dublin fungal chorology from Glasnevin. Jeffrey et al (1977) provide dune fungi data from North Bull Island and Moore (1976) gives saxicolous lichen data from Glasnevin churches, both also from raster square O13. Fewer than 100 papers, identified from the 4,500+ species accounts and 3,301 titles were located and abstracted. Published lichen data from Pim (1878) and Seaward et al. (1978) were databased.
Accessions books were consulted to identify batches containing fungi from the grounds. Accession book donation composition lists for batches were read if available.
Species covers in the DBN herbarium were opened and label details including accession numbers abstracted.
Bibliographic entries cited were reread in their original where possible and abstracted.
Surveys of the site, on many occasions, from 1998 to 2015, across several taxonomic groups were carried out by the authors. Species lists were made for many individual accessioned woody plants, particularly tree and shrubs of 10 years and over.
Species abstracts from County Dublin and raster square O13 were obtained from searches of the FRDBI and the NBDC datasets.
Databased information in FRDBI and NBDC were traced to their original sources, where possible, and bibliographic details abstracted, and the details verified by rereading printed sources.
Archival information from other botanical visits was databased – Seaward et al., Douglass, BMS 23 Sept 1925, Jerry Cooper, and from many others.
Species previously reported (lichens) were searched for by the authors, and if detected updated localised information was logged for inclusion in the records dataset.
Plant records data of the National Botanic Gardens was consulted – living plant catalogues – horticultural plants accessions registers – dead books – safety hazard record files all received explorative scrutiny as a source of incidental fungus records.
Names of locations and places in the gardens are as used by Liz Brennan and the plant records office. Places were given names used by general operatives, craft gardeners, charge hands, foremen and other staff if known. Denis McNally provided names for some places from maps by Besant in the 1930s. Bone yard with the portacabins, Dog yard with the visitor services education greenhouse, compost bays in the yard at enclosed garden, and the name for the herbarium building from 1970 to 1997 is not straightforward. Archaic place names used by the long serving staff with 10 or more years of service are often reused here.

Archival data from NBG/DBN

DATA SOURCES, SPECIES REVIEW & SITE SEARCH EFFORT
In this study, information source materials available to construct a fungal species inventory of the grounds were reviewed. These sources included institutional computer files in DBN, online biological record data, legacy printed literature, presented specimens, ad hoc fieldwork, collected specimens, digital and slide photographs. A public lecture prepared by MC and HF was presented at the National Botanic Gardens by HF in 2011, with a broad taxonomic scope and a long list of over 100 contributors to the fungal record dataset. For this current paper, a summary table of records (see TABLE 2) was constructed with 18 fields. The data was consolidated and duplication edited out for information from multiple partial sources.
Sources include a handwritten card index ‘Catalogue of Irish fungi post 1950’ for circa 600 species. This was read and data abstracted for circa 150 species noted from the National Botanic Gardens grounds. Mapping scheme species data for raster square O13 for lichens, fungi and myxomycetes was downloaded from the NBN gateway. Species records were traced as far as possible to their sources and provenance. Information originating from North Bull Island (Jeffrey et al., 1977) was excluded as irrelevant, and an archived mapping scheme card from an April 1976 visit to the National Botanic Gardens that had been lodged in the DBN herbarium was catalogued.

A Mycorec dataset compiled by the authors from 2002 to 2007 was an initial source. Targeted field studies to enhance the knowledge of the fungi of the grounds included lichen mapping, agaric surveying, and general collecting on a sporadic and opportunistic basis. Circa 1,000 field observations were made.
The County Dublin information for 902 species on FRDBI was reviewed by MC. This yielded 42 records for 29 species from the grounds. More than 3,100 fungal species distribution accounts in Muskett & Malone’s 1978 to 1985 ‘Catalogue of Irish Fungi’ were read by HF. County Dublin records (H21) listing Glasnevin as a locality for first records were abstracted together with their Muskett (1976) bibliography citation numbers. For myxomycetes, HF considered Lister (1912), Lister (1926), Ing & Mitchell (1980), Ing & McHugh (1988) and McHugh (2012) and their distribution accounts for circa 210 Irish species. From 1350 lichen and lichenicolous fungi species distribution abstracts, HF considered the catalogues of Pim (1878), Knowles (1929), and the species listed for County Dublin by Fox (2001) and Seaward (1984, 1994, 2010) for records from Glasnevin and ecological habitat potential for discovery in the garden. Titles of 3,301 bibliography entries noted in Muskett (1976), Mangan (2008), Mitchell (1971) and McCarthy & Mitchell (1992) were screened as pertinent on the basis of potentially reporting County Dublin fungal chorology from Glasnevin. Papers identified from the 4,500+ species accounts and 3,301 titles were located, if available, photocopied, read, and, if required, abstracted. Bibliography entries cited and available to the authors were reread in their original.
Important literature identified included Jeffrey et al (1977) who provides dune fungi data from North Bull Island, in raster square O23, and Moore (1976) who gives saxicolous lichen data from Glasnevin churches, also from raster square O13. The FRDBI, collated by Kirk and Cooper, was searched by MC. Species abstracts from County Dublin and raster square O13 were obtained from searches of the FRDBI and the NBDC datasets. Databased information in FRDBI and NBDC were traced to their original sources where possible, and bibliographic details abstracted, and the details verified by rereading printed sources. Published lichen data from Pim (1878) and Seaward et al. (1978) was databased. Accessions books were consulted to identify batches containing fungi from the grounds. Accession book donation composition lists in DBN files for batches if available were read. Species covers in the DBN herbarium were opened and label details including accession numbers abstracted.
Repeated surveys of the site were undertaken by about 150 different people since recording began in 1801. Mycological recording activity occurred on at least 150 dates in the 21st century, 250 dates in the 20th century, and 30 dates in the 19th century. Taxonomic coverage comprised of seven broad taxonomic groups in the fungi: Ascomycetes; Ascomycete Lichens; Basidiomycetes; Basidiomycete Uredini; Mitosporic Fungi; Oomycetes and Myxomycetes. The coverage of Myxomycetes is considered to be weakest part of this taxonomic inventory, as no new knowledge from bark cultures has been obtained. Species lists of Ascomycete Lichens were made by the authors for many individual accessioned woody plants, particularly tree and shrubs of 10 years and over. Archival information from other mycological visits was tabulated – Seaward et al. in 1976, Douglass in 2010, British Mycological Society on 23 September 1925, Jerry Cooper in 1989, and many others. Species previously reported (Ascomycete Lichens) were searched for by the authors, and if detected, updated locality information and host plant or substrate detail was logged for inclusion in the records dataset.
Plant record databases maintained in the National Botanic Gardens (Brennan 2009 to 2015) were consulted and by using multiple queries of the living plant catalogues, horticultural plants accessions registers, dead books, and some management files, such as safety hazard record files, useful data were found for addition to the species record abstracts in our fungal dataset.

SCANNELL’S CARD INDEX OF FUNGI
The nucleus of this contribution was drawn from a handwritten card index of fungal specimens created and maintained by Maura Scannell during her term as keeper of the herbarium from the 1970s to 1989. Maura visited NBG regularly until 2005 and continued to record fungi even when retired. The National Botanic Gardens records on this index were databased between 2002 and 2005 onto the Mycorec Microsoft Access database utility designed by Jerry Cooper. Then the database output species lists were used to select voucher specimens for extracted from DBN in order to fill out full label details that were only partially abstracted in the original card index. Herbarium specimens in the DBN herbarium therefore form a sound basis for records of the majority of species in this listing.

This work

TAXON SCOPE – Fungi, Fungi like Protoctists, Fungi like Chromists
All site species inventory research is limited in comprehensiveness by the author’s knowledge of and access to sources of information. Published compilations, such as this, act as a magnet for new and hitherto overlooked historic and current information. Our study is no different, and with the long gestation of this project from 2011, we hope this has helped us to draw from many sources of information.
This list includes lichens, lichenicolous fungi and other allied fungi often identified by lichenologists as well as agarics, boletes, corticioid and heterobasidiomycete fungi, rusts, mildews, micro-fungi on land plants, ferns, bryophytes and horticultural plant fungal diseases identified by gardeners, mycologists, and botanists.

WEATHER STATION AND CLIMATE IN GLASNEVIN
The climate of Glasnevin is well recorded with a full computerised table of temperature measurements from 1941 to 2014 and rainfall figures from 1961 to 2014 were made available for this mycological study (E. Murphy pers. comm.) and these valuable data are now stored on the OPW server.
The Meteorological Office have their headquarters on Glasnevin Hill, and there is good liaison between staff in both institutions. Meteorological Station Site Number 284 at the National Botanic Gardens is recorded daily at 0900 hrs British Standard Time. Hence in the winter readings are taken at 0900 hrs local time, and in summer months, measurements are taken at local time of 1000 hrs. Within the wire fenced meteorological station compound, grass lawns growing are maintained by the gardener Sean Duffy.
The Weather station equipment comprises the following measurement apparatus: The Stevenson’s Screen is a wooden louvered housing for the maximum, minimum, the wet and dry bulb thermometers and has a Distilled water bottle, replacement Wicks and a Graduated cylinder. Soil temperature shallow is measured at 40cm with a thermometer and soil temperature deep is measured at 120cm with a chained tubed thermometer. A copper funnel tipping bucket rain gauge chart recorder with clock key is wound every Thursday. A Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder is maintained with recording charts (Summer and Winter). A grass horizontal maximum minimum thermometer is supported on stirrups in a mown grass lawn. A supply of graduated cylinders, replacement thermometers, cards, nibs and wicks are necessary to keep the Copper Funnel Rain Gauges and other apparatus in this weather station running. For more details about the apparatus utilised see Barnett, A. Hatton, D.B., Jones D.W. 1998. Recent changes in thermometer screen design and their impact. WMO/TD – No. 871. Meteorological Office, Beaufort Park, Wokingham, UK.
Rainfall figures and temperature figures are read together with some assessment of cloud cover and measurement of Sunshine figures, and recorded on an inhouse template each morning. Daily weather reports by the Foreman on Duty (S. Moore & D.McNally, in conversation) are made. This daily information informs decision making on the day for the activities planned for chargehands from the evening before.

CONTRIBUTORS OF MODERN RECORDS AND MATERIAL FOR STUDY

TABLE 1 – List of people who have contributed observations, collections or identifications

RESULTS

HISTORY OF MYCOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF THE GROUNDS
Walter Wade (1804) reported 12 species from the Botanical Gardens in Glasnevin from a long series of fungal observations from 1801 to 1804, mainly from County Dublin including the Brackenstown Woods near Swords. As voucher specimens for these samples are not known to have survived, and the morphological and technical descriptions of species, from the late 18th and early 19th century time period, are vague, a few of these species names have been hard to interpret in the light of fungal taxonomy history to date.
Pim (1878) presents a record of the spectacular vivid green saxicolous crustose lichen Psilolechia lucida, in a manual to support the British Association for the Advancement of Science visit to Dublin in Summer 1878. This lichen species is still prominent to this day on a brick wall of the alpine yard and a brick building near the millrace sluice. The Botanic Gardens was administratively moved, in 1877, into state care from governance by the Royal Dublin Society, to the Museums and Galleries section, South Kensington. With the foundation of the new state, it was later transferred to the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction (McCracken & Nelson 1987).
Guielma Lister, in September 1925, collected myxomycetes from the glasshouses during a British Mycological Society visit to Counties Dublin, Wicklow and Kildare (Wakefield et al., 1926, Smith & Knowles 1926, Lister, 1926) confirming prior glasshouse slime mold reports by F.W. Moore and G. Pim (Moore 1893). Maps of the sites visited on the foray were provided to assist visitors, and Miss Knowles contribution to organising this foray was greatly appreciated. The records from the 1925 excursion are available on the FRDBI database.
In the 20th Century, the Irish National Herbarium was moved from central Dublin out to Glasnevin in 1970. The museum botanist Maura Scannell, who kept a card index for new fungal records since 1950, adapted this card index to note records of voucher specimens from the grounds in Glasnevin with a red mark on the top right corner of the index card. About 150 of 600 species record cards were marked in this way. In 1977, Maura published, with colleagues from Paris, a new species Dothiorella davidiae, a pycnidial anamorph in the Xylariaceae family (Zambonelli et al. 1977) that colonises the fruits’ pericarp. This research on Davidia stimulated our study in 2003. A bibliography and catalogue of species abstracts of floristic mycology in Ireland was published (Muskett 1976, Muskett & Malone 1978-1985) and this work is the key item of intellectual scholarship that made this review possible.
As the Irish National Herbarium is a resource and a draw for many academic mycologists interested in reviewing the scientific contents of the DBN collections, the adjacent grounds with mature arboretum and heritage gardens are a good environment for walks by visitors and demonstration of their mycological prowess. In April 1976, Mark Seaward, Brian Coppins and Chris Hitch visited the gardens and made a list of 66 lichens from the site in about an hour. An annotated manuscript card listing 43 lichens has been located in DBN, but the identity of the remaining 23 species claimed (Seaward, Coppins & Hitch 1978: 268) requires further research in archives. Jerry Cooper, who was in Ireland for the 1989 mycological foray in Roscrea, also visited the grounds and reported a range of leaf micro-fungi.
In the 21st century, we ran a long series of meetings of the Dublin Naturalists’ Field Club fungus working group on Wednesday evenings in the herbarium after hours with the objective of building, with people living or working in Dublin, the knowledge of fungi in County Dublin and in general in Ireland. An initial study in 2003 was to list the lichens, to complement the knowledge of the fungi, on the Handkerchief Tree Davidia involucrata bushes around the gardens, grown successfully for many years, as a choice shrub to small tree originally from China. We continued with contributions on listing lichens on various woody hosts in 2007.
A visit to donate to and review some samples in the Irish National herbarium by John Douglass provided an opportunity to make a further contribution to the knowledge of the lichens of the site on 18 February 2010. Calicium viride was added. In preparing this for publication, efforts were made in Autumn 2014 to provide a reasonable coverage for agarics and to extend the localised mapped lichen records from woody plants around the various sections of the gardens.

Tables of species

SPECIES DIVERSITY FIGURES
The number of records in the dataset (TABLE 1) with record collection dates in classes of between a century and a decade duration are provided in seven time categories from 1800-1899, 1900-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2009 are tabulated in TABLE 2.
Figures for 2010 to 2017 are not here, due to the time consuming and rapidly changing nature of maintaining an up to date record dataset for analysis, given the daily increments of knowledge, observations and intensive monitoring that is ongoing with this project.
These statistics show the fungal recording effort, in terms of number of people, number of days with records, the number of records available per decade, number of species seen each decade, rate of recording in records made available per year, the database size each decade and the running total as it increases per decade.
The Fungi of the Grounds dataset (TABLE 1) with record collection dates within a series of variously sized year to year classes are tabulated in six categories (1800-1899, 1900-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2009.) in TABLE 2.

TABLE 1 – Summary statistics for observer numbers, observation day effort, recording industry, resultant species diversity, recording rates and increments in the size of the Fungi of the Grounds records and species dataset.

Units
Decade
Number of observers recording fungi in each decade (staff)
Number of dates on which fungi were observed on site in each decade
Quantity count of records to hand
Count of number of species seen in each decade
Recording rate in units of quantity count per year
Cumulative total of quantity of records to hand
Cumulative total of fungal species on site
Year
Year
People
Days
Records
Species
Rate
Records
Species
1800
1899
15 (5)
30
46
45
0.46
46
45
1900
1969
20 (1)
20
43
36
0.61
89
81
1970
1979
41 (1)
105
232
128
23.2
321
200
1980
1989
28 (2)
100
144
66
14.4
465
245
1990
1999
10 (1)
42
49
35
4.9
514
259
2000
2009
37 (1)
114
584
211
58.4
1098
386

These statistics show the fungal observation basis has grown over the decades. The rate of recording was low in the 19th and first 70 years of the 20th century, and was lower than normal in the 1990s due to fewer observation days per decade. When this project was instigated, recording has increased by >80% and 150 species were added to the site.

DATASET SCOPE
The records table was generated to hold observation data from varied sources on fungi of the grounds (FOTG), National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. This location place name was found in printed summary data on County Dublin fungal and lichen species by using the search terms ‘Glasnevin’ and/or ‘Botanic’.
The attribution of fungal species distributional data associated with the Glasnevin place name to the grounds of the National Botanic Gardens is a relatively safe inference, as these grounds are a major tourist attraction frequented by people interested in plants. Plant identification and referring to plants by their Latin names has been a societal role for this gardening training institution for over two centuries.
Those interested in contributing observations and reporting fungal distributions (see McWeeney 1894) tend to be a subset of the people interested in plants. The Botanic Gardens in Glasnevin are home to a myriad of unusual host plants, and sources often contain contextual information on individual people (see Table 2) who interacted with the institution between 1795 and 2015, which implicitly indicates an observations basis being from the grounds of the National Botanic Gardens, even if not completely explicitly stated in the source.

OTHER FUNGI FROM AROUND GLASNEVIN
In preparing this paper, the authors have taken the opportunity to visit many other localities in Glasnevin and survey there too. A very small number of species have not been seen in the grounds of the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. The place name Glasnevin is used to refer to 4 localities for 8 saxicolous lichens (Moore 1976: 270, 285) from various church buildings in the extended parish (Moore 1976: 282-283). Observations relating to agricultural teaching at the Albert College appear twice in the literature for a parasite of red thread Laetisaria fuciformis, and this site in Glasnevin is now incorporated by the campus of Dublin City University. Almost 40 lichen species were recorded there on a recent University Challenge BioBlitz competition from the Albert on the Dublin City University campus (Fox & Cullen, NBDC data). Placynthium nigrum is known on cement walltop of the Finglas dual carriage-way bridge over the River Tolka and Lecanora campestris subsp. dolomitica is on limestone headstones in prospect cemetery and Octospora coccinea was seen on wall moss cushions in the cemetery on the western-most perimeter wall of the botanics. A survey of Griffith Valley Park along the Tolka River below Glasnevin Bridge yielded a key local population of Physconia grisea. Glasnevin House grounds part of the Holy Faith convent by Glasnevin Hill has Phyllacora dactylidis and is interesting for Arthonia radiata thalli inhibiting corking on 3 to 6 year old Ulmus twig bark actively being infected by Dutch elm disease, and the Addison Lodge provides habitat for Pseudotrametes gibbosa on a sycamore stump. One Scutellinia species, potentially from North Bull Island near Raheny in O14, is not specifically resolved in the NBDC source beyond O13, and it is feasible that the report is from the grounds of the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin.

HERBARIUM AND INTERNET RECORDS
Botanists interested in seeing herbarium collections have visited the site in person to consult the Irish National Herbarium, DBN, housed in the Library/Herbarium building. DBN was in a house and prefab from 1970 to 1997 and was moved to a purpose built facility in 1998 where it is still (in 2015) stored. The DBN herbarium register has been maintained continuously since 1902. Mentions of Glasnevin normally refer to the National Botanic Gardens, and previous names, Royal Botanic Garden, etc. Hence the value of search terms of Glasnevin and Botanic for all time periods.

INFORMATION COMMUNICATION DESIGN
In presenting the data for publication, a species abstract is designed with the following format of fungi records in the dataset.

Name Author Taxon Group First Record: Collector (year)
Location: place details, substrate; Host (accession number), Collector, date. Notes.
Comments.

This enables the essential points of each observation and species identification to be transparently communicated and hence the source data be useful for many other purposes in future scientific compilations.

TABLE 3 – FUNGI OF THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDENS GLASNEVIN DATASET

Abortiporus biennis (Bull.) Singer Basidio First record: MM (2005)
A2: roots; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Elegans Superba’ (1885.011022), MM, 14/09/2005.
First seen here on 13/09/2005. A saprophyte of buried hardwood roots, this species is an irregularly lobed soft poroid bracket.
Acarospora fuscata (Schrad.) Th.Fr. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
O1: Craobh, granite; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
A siliceous rock mountain boulder and coastal bird perch species, scarce in Dublin city.
Agaricus arvensis Schaeff. Basidio First record: MM (2004)
W: near McCanns under the hedge, soil; Thuja, MM, 03/11/2004.
Agaricus bitorquis (Quél.) Sacc. Basidio First record: NM (2005)
OBE: Penstemon border, soil; NM, 07/08/2005.
OBE: Penstemon border, soil; under Penstemon, NM, 15/08/2005.
Robust white cap, scales, ring, thick stem, 15cm diam, see Mycol Soc. Madrid book on Agaricus
Agaricus campestris L. Basidio First record: NM (2004)
C3: shrubbery, soil in grass; Angiospermae, NM, 11/07/2004.
NZ: Under bushes; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
The common field mushroom.
Agaricus porphyrocephalus F.H. Møller Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
C2-W: near Cactus wing of Palm house, on bark mulch; under Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’ (XX.013638), MLC & HFF, 02/12/2014.
Seldom recorded, new to Co. Dublin and Ireland (Legon et al. 2005: 4).
Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeff. Basidio First record: AM Roche (2005)
OBE: Penstemon border, soil; Penstemon, AM Roche, 21/06/2005. vide Sean Donelan, moderate inky smell, cap with small scales on, ring drooping, stem chunky 25mm, cap 15cm
Agaricus sylvicola (Vittad) Peck Basidio First record: MLC, HFF & BO’L (2014)
NBG: top of Pine hill, leaf litter; MLC, HFF & BO’L, 04/06/2014.
Agaricus xanthodermus Genev. Basidio First record: J Downes (1983)
NBG: by Porter’s lodge, soil; Hydrangea, J Downes, 29/08/1983. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: soil; Escallonia, MJPS, 18/09/1984. DBN 83: 1984
CP: mulch; pointed out by Oberon to MLC & HFF, 04/09/2014.
The yellow stainer is vaguely similar to the field mushroom, but the skin of the cap bruises yellow when handled, and the base of the stipe, when split, is yellow internally. This is an important mushroom to know about and is involved in mushroom poisoning cases in Ireland, usually causing gastric upsets.
Agrocybe praecox (Pers.) Fayod Basidio First record: J O’Shea (1973)
NBG: soil; Fraxinus excelsior, J O’Shea, 21/08/1973. DBN 23: 1974 Card Index, Scannell
C5: soil in grass; Angiospermae, NM, 11/07/2004.
NBG: edge of yard near back gate, soil, grit; F Doherty, 17/05/2004. C&D 1995: p 360 fig. 1299
Agrocybe putaminum (Maire) Singer Basidio First record: A Weir (2005)
R6: behind Palm house, wood chips; Spiraea, A Weir, –/06/2005. Kibby & Evans
R6: behind Palmhouse, wood chips; NM, 31/05/2005.
R6: wood chips; Spiraea, G Kelsh, –/06/2005.
R6: wood chips; Spiraea, HFF & MM, 01/06/2005. impressive flush
R6: wood chips; Spiraea, MM, 18/04/2005.
R6: wood chips; Spiraea, MM, 20/04/2005.
R6: wood chips; Spiraea, S Williams, –/06/2005.
New to Co. Dublin and Ireland (Legon et al. 2005: 7). A local mushroom forming broken rings on the stem, veil attached to cap margin, smell cucumbery, cap greasy, umbo tan egg, margin grey brown flecked, gills pale and a cinnamon spore print.
Albugo candida (Pers.) O.Kunze Oomycota First record: JAC (1989)
NBG: leaf, living; Brassica oleracea, JAC, 28/09/1989. FRDBI 272576, on cabbage, curly kale & brussels sprouts
Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) M.Choisy Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2005)
C3: Rhamnus class, bark; Rhamnus petiolaris (1960.002826), HFF, 11/05/2005.
C5: bark of branch; Syringa ‘Correlata’ (1975.0205), HFF, 25/05/2005.
C5: bark; Syringa reticulata (1982.0533b), HFF, 31/05/2005.
M1: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.013085), HFF, 11/02/2005.
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (XX.011637), HFF, 05/02/2007. Tree since removed
B3: bark; Magnolia soulangeana ‘Speciosa’ (1974.1457), MLC & HFF, 25/01/2007.
P6: by pond, bark; Picea omorika (XX.013800), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
A1: twigs shed from canopy; Acer, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
B3: bark; Platanus x hispanica ‘Acerifolia’ (XX.009229), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus aliena (1932.006034), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus macrocarpa (XX.006035), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus robur ‘Fastigiata Cucullata’ (1930.006033), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus stellata (1933.006016), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
A2: bark; Fraxinus ornus (1977.0039), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014. #51 Far grounds A2
C2-E: trunk bark; Ailanthus vilmoriniana (XX.013798), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
G2: bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Pendula’ (XX.009899), MLC & HFF, 10/04/2014. Tree felled and removed on this day
PL: trunk; Taxodium distichum (1926.009958), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
Amanita crocea (Quel.) Sing. Basidio First record: WW (1804)
NBG: soil; WW, –/–/1804. as Agaricus trilobus. This synonymy is contraversial – Agrocybe putaminum was considered. Legon et al. 2005: 427 suggest Amanita fulva. Wade’s fungus is more orange, hence Amanita crocea, but description of cinnamon gills point to Agrocybe Wade 1804
Amanita phalloides (Fr.) Link Basidio First record: Anon (2014)
DUBLIN: handed in at visitor desk, soil; Poaceae, Anon, 16/09/2014. This deadly poisonous mushroom is known from the nearby St. Anne’s Park, Raheny under Quercus ilex (G. Walsh, pers. comm.). Definitive information of it being at the NBG grounds is lacking and its inferred occurrence here remains tenuous. It is a widely known and seriously toxic mushroom, involved in one horrific poisoning case in Ireland in the 2010s.
Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R.C.Harris Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: bark; Angiospermae, MRDS, BJC & CJBH, –/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
B3: bark; Platanus x hispanica ‘Acerifolia’ (XX.009229), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
Anisomeridium polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M.E.Barr Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2005)
P4: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.007806), HFF, 11/02/2005.
O1/2: trunk; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge ex Desm.) Höhn. Asco First record: MJPS (1983)
A1: leaf; Acer, MJPS, 29/06/1983. DBN 27: 1983 Card Index, Scannell
Armillaria gallica Marxm. & Romagn. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A2: base of trunk; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Waterer’s Variety’, MLC & HFF, 16/09/2014.
A2: trunk base; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Waterers Variety’ (1888.011023), MLC & HFF, 28/02/2015.
Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MJPS (1983)
C5: former Sorbus class, trunk; Sorbus latifolia, MJPS, 13/12/1983. DBN 72: 1983 mycelium protruding from bark at 6 ft on tree in process of felling, Tree since removed
C5: former Sorbus class, trunk; Sorbus latifolia, W Murphy, 04/11/1983. DBN 72: 1983
C5: former Sorbus class, base of trunk; Sorbus pyrifolia, W Murphy, 31/10/1984. DBN 83: 1984
MG: roots; Magnolia x soulangeana ‘Rustica Rubra’ (1980.0251), B Brown, –/–/1984. DBN 83: 1984 fruits and rhizomorphs
NBG: roots; Salix fargesii, DS, 17/10/1984. DBN 89: 1984
C5: former Sorbus class, soil; Sorbus, DS, 19/09/1989. DBN 72: 1989 plentiful in Sorbus Prunus area, Armillaria polymyces
C6: Prunus and medlar class, roots; Prunus, DS, –/09/1989. DBN 19: 1990 several trees dead or dying
NBG: stump; Arbutus unedo, GP, 03/10/1994. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
NBG: soil; Prunus, GP, –/10/1996. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
A3: holly class, stump; Populus, GP, –/10/1997. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
NBG: soil; Arbutus unedo, S Corcoran, 11/12/2006.
The Bootlace fungus, a serious disease causer responsible for many failures of new hardy nursery stock plantings in the shrubberies in the fronts and inner grounds.
Arrhenia griseopallida (Desm.) Watling Basidio First record: HFF (2014)
NU: mossy soil; Musci, HFF, 05/09/2014.
New to Co. Dublin and Ireland (Legon et al. 2005: 15).
Arthonia atra (Pers.) A.Schneid. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
A1: twigs shed from canopy; Acer, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
A3: ; (1984.0581), HFF, 01/12/2015.
Arthonia punctiformis Ach. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
A1: twigs shed from canopy; Acer, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A4: trunk bark; Betula (2001.oooo), HFF, 15/12/15. whole base of tree to 1m with it, below the tie
Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2007)
C5: twigs; Syringa laciniata (1975.0204), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), JD, 18/02/2010.
A1: twigs shed from canopy; Acer, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A5: Sorbus class, low branches; Sorbus mougeotii (1941.010906), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O1/2: twigs; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
A5S: hazel class, bark of twig; Corylus avellana (XX.013920), MLC & HFF, 03/12/2014.
G2: bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Pendula’ (XX.009899), MLC & HFF, 10/04/2014. Tree felled and removed on this day
PL: twig; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
A3: ; Crataegus stipulaceae (2006.1678), HFF, 01/12/2015.
A3: ; (1984.0581), HFF, 01/12/2015.
Arthonia spadicea Leight. Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: bark; Angiospermae, MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 19(8), 269, 1978 Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
P4: bark; Diospyros virginiana (XX.007804), HFF & MLC, 07/07/2003.
Arthopyrenia punctiformis A.Massal. Asco First record: HFF (2005)
C5: bark; Syringa reticulata (1982.0533), HFF, 31/05/2005.
NBG: bark; Betula, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
T2: in compost yard, canopy twig bark; Betula pubescens ‘Pendula’ (XX.007712), HFF, 05/01/2015.
Arthrinium phaeospermum (Corda) M.B.Ellis Mitosporic First record: MJP Scannell & B Coppins (1976)
NBG: stem; Bambusa, MJP Scannell & B Coppins, 06/04/1976. DBN. Common
Ascodichaena rugosa Butin Mitosporic First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
O1/2: twigs; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: twigs; Quercus aliena (1932.006034), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: twigs; Quercus stellata (1933.006016), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
Aspicilia grisea Arnold Asco Lichen First record: JD (2010)
RR: on rock, JD, 18/02/2010. N Smyth’s annotated copy of Dobson 2005: 74
Athallia cerinella (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
O2: trunk; Quercus robur ‘Fastigiata Cucullata’ (1930.006033), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
R5: twigs shed from canopy; Ailanthus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A2: bark; Fraxinus ornus (1977.0039), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014. #51 Far grounds A2
Athallia holocarpa (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: rock; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
AY: limestone; MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
NBG: cement walltop; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
B1: limestone; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Athelia arachnoidea (Berk.) Jülich Basidio First record: MJPS (1978)
C5: former Sorbus class, bark; Sorbus, MJPS, –/11/1978.
VG: trunk; Cedrela sinensis (XX.000939), MJPS, –/09/1978.
VG: bark; Lecanora conizaeoides on Cedrela sinensis trunk (XX.000939), MJPS, –/09/1978. DBN 13: 1979
NBG: bark of twigs; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 14/11/1978.
NBG: bark of twigs; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 27/11/1978. DBN 13: 1979
NBG: bark; Lecanora conizaeoides on Sorbus trunk, MJPS, 27/11/1978. DBN 13: 1979
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/02/2005.
NBG: bark; Desmococcus olivaceus on Viscum album, HFF, 10/01/2005.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Desmococcus olivaceus on Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), HFF, 10/01/2007.
A1: bark; Physcia tenella on Acer monspessulanum (1946.011727), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
A1: lichen; Physcia tenella (1897.011679), HFF, 16/12/15. Apparently seasonal. Good to now know on which tree it is anticipated
Aulographum hederae Lib. Asco First record: HFF (2004)
NBG: dead leaf; Hedera helix, HFF, 10/02/2004. E&E 143, fig 621, 1985.
Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Wettst. Basidio First record: MJPS (1975)
NBG: stick; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 05/03/1975. DBN 5: 1975 FRDBI 598143
CH: stem; Evodia hupiensis, M Reape, 30/05/1986. DBN 39: 1986
B1: cut stump; Berberis, MM, 20/04/2005.
A1: wood; Acer (XX.011841), MLC & HFF, 27/02/2007. not mapped tree removed
A1: wood; Acer diabolicum (1897.011661), MLC & HFF, 27/02/2007.
R5: twig, shed; Ailanthus giraldii var. duclouxii (1923.01085), I Patton, 03/01/2007.
VB: stick; Mahonia (XX.005846), MLC & HFF, 22/08/2014.
NBG: by cemetery wall, stick on ground; B O’L, MLC & HFF, 22/08/2014.
Auriscalpium vulgare S.F.Gray Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2007)
NBG: cone in soil; Pinus contorta, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007. 2 needle pine with black patches
NBG: soil; Pinus contorta, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007. 2 pronged needles with black patches
Ear Pick fungus, from east of the Pine Hill summit.
Bacidia saxenii Erichs. Asco Lichen First record: Teagasc class & HFF (2016)
A5N: Off arboretum perimeter path, limestone ashlar; Teagasc class with HFF, –/01/2016, wall flora walk.
Badhamia capsulifera (Bull.) Berk. Myxo First record: HFF (2015)
A2: dead attached branch underside below Orthotrichum acrocarpous moss cushions; Fraxinus angustifolia (1904.011032), HFF, 27/11/2015. Det. 29/11/2015, herb. R.M.McHugh
New to Co. Dublin and Republic of Ireland (McHugh & Ing 2012: 147). Likely to be on an original planting of the algerian ash, as Fraxinus numidica.
Baeospora myosura (Fr.) Singer Basidio First record: MM (2005)
B3: cone; Cedrus libani, MM, 09/02/2005. new for DBN
Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
NBG: near compost yard gate, wall; MLC & HFF, 22/08/2014.
NBG: bryophyte; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. on moss cushion on mortar of old limestone walls
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007. spores 3 septate
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/01/2007.
Bisporella sulfurina (Quel.) S.E.Carp. Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A5S: hazel class, lignum of cut pole; Corylus avellana (XX.013920), MLC & HFF, 03/12/2014.
Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P.Karst. Basidio First record: PMcD (1979)
NBG: wood; Rhododendron, PMcD, 13/08/1979. DBN 44: 1981
NBG: wood; Rhododendron, PMcD, 06/09/1979. DBN 44: 1981 foliage dead
NBG: near cactus house, stump; Acer, MM, 15/02/2005.
Blastenia crenularia (With.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
Blennothallia crispa (Huds.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: rock; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
NU: mossy soil; Musci, HFF & M Connolly, 05/09/2014.
EG: mossy area near Cedrus logs in enclosed garden, soil; HFF, 15/08/2005.
CLE: mossy floor of cold frame; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
B1: limestone mortar; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer Asco First record: MJPS (1983)
NBG: by Tolka river, leaf; Poaceae, MJPS, 23/05/1983. DBN 27: 1983
Boeremia hedericola (Durieu & Mont.) Aveskamp, Gruyter & Verkley Asco First record: MJPS (1980)
NBG: leaf; Hedera, MJPS, –/09/1980. DBN 30: 1989
NBG: near main office, leaf; Hedera colchica, MJPS, 24/08/1984. DBN 83: 1984
Bolbitius titubans (Bull.) Fr. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
NBG: grass lawn; MLC, HFF & BO’L, 04/06/2014.
Boletus subtomentosus L. Basidio First record: MJPS (1981)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, MJPS, 27/08/1981. DBN 78: 1981
Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hern.-Mar., Gómez-Bolea & Llimona Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
AY: Wall, mortar; HFF, 02/02/2007.
RSG: wall; HFF, 20/02/2007.
NBG: near head height on LHS of steps down to basement door on north side of Curvilinear Range, brick; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
RSG: mortar of wall; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Botryotinia polyblastis (Gregory) Buchwald Asco First record: HFF (2004)
NBG: dead flower petals; Narcissus, HFF, 20/04/2004. Second Irish collection, duplicate sent to Roy Kennedy HRI. E&E 390, 1985.
Botrytis cinerea Pers. Mitosporic First record: D Daly (1973)
NBG: stems; Griselinia, D Daly, 07/02/1973. DBN 42: 1978 on Hypoxylon type fructification
AW: fruit; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, HFF, –/12/2004.
Botrytis tulipae Lind Mitosporic First record: N McEvoy (1987)
NBG: tulip beds near main gate, leaf; Tulipa ‘Colour Cardinale’, N McEvoy, 23/04/1987. DBN 11: 1987 tulip fire in cultivation
NBG: near main gate, leaf; Tulipa, MJPS, 15/04/1988. DBN 45: 1988
Buellia aethalea (Ach.) Th.Fr. Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: rock; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
NBG: Herbarium pond, granite; JD, 18/02/2010.
NBG: Herbarium pond, granite lintel; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Buellia griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007. New for NBG
Byssosphaeria schiedermayeriana (Fuckel) M.E.Barr Asco First record: JW Keit (1872)
NBG: old rope; JW Keit, –/–/1872. K(M)108784, FRDBI 898130 Muskett 66 67 114; MM 4: 178, 1983; Pim PRIA 4: 25, 1884.
Calicium viride Pers. Asco Lichen First record: JD (2010)
A1: bark; Acer sterculiaceum franchetii (1910.011665), JD, 18/02/2010. new for NBG
P5: by pond, bark; Chionanthus retusus (1910.010616), JD, 18/02/2010. N Smyth’s annotated copy Dobson 2005: 92
A1: bark; Acer, MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer sterculiaceum franchetii (1910.011665), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Donk Basidio First record: NM & HFF (2004)
A3: by bandstand, leaf litter; Angiospermae, NM & HFF, 10/05/2004.
A5N: garden wall beyond bandstand, soil; Poaceae under Fagus sylvatica atropurpurea & Pinus, #N/A, 26/04/2004. ring 3-4 m diameter
A3: by band stand, soil; Pyracantha, HFF, NM & S Moore, 27/05/2005. largest specimen, 10cm diam, colony has been growing well for more than a month
A3: by bandstand, soil; MM, NM, HFF, 01/06/2005.
A3: by bandstand, soil; NM, 20/04/2005. site since destroyed
A3: near band stand, soil; Poaceae, S O’Brien & HFF, 25/04/2005.
A5N: soil; Ilex aquifolium ‘Pendula’ (XX.009497), MLC, 05/06/2014.
A3: near band stand, soil; MLC, HFF & BO’L, 04/06/2014.
Calogaya pusilla (A.Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
NBG: cactus house pits, cement wall lintel; MLC & HFF, 15/09/2011. Group outing
NBG: cactus house pits, cement wall lintel; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
NBG: south side of greenhouse, Valentia slate potting tables; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011. sterile
B1: granite; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014. new for NBG
Calvatia gigantea (Batsch) Lloyd Basidio First record: GP (1996)
B2: soil; GP, –/08/1996. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
B2: soil; Angiospermae, MM, 16/09/2003. DBN 19: 2003
M1: soil with plant litter; Angiospermae, C Penney, –/–/2003.
RR: soil; Angiospermae, J Brown, 13/07/2004.
NBG: soil; Cannas, Bananas and Dahlias, M Howlin, 05/08/2004.
NBG: tropical bed, soil; G Kelsh, NM & HFF, 17/08/2005.
NBG: soil; M Murphy, 18/08/2005.
Camarosporium lauri Sacc. Mitosporic First Record: HFF (2005)
G1: dead stem; Laurus nobilis, HFF, 04/02/2005. anamorph of ?Curcubitaria
Candelabrum spinulosum van Beverwijk Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: needles; Pinus, MJPS, 26/03/1976. DBN 28: 1977 extends the host range
NBG: needles; Pinus, MJPS, 26/04/1976. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: needles; Pinus, MJPS, 23/04/1988. DBN 28: 1977 IMI 202383 (a)
Candelaria concolor (Dickson) B.Stein Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
A1: bark; Acer rufinerve ‘Gaujardii’ (1931.011714), HFF, 14/03/2007.
A5: Sorbus class, trunk base; Sorbus mougeotii (1941.010906), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
MG: bark; Magnolia acuminata var subcordata (XX.004364), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
LF: bark; Robinia pseudoacacia ‘pendula’ (XX.004634), HFF, 07/12/2012. NE facing fork
LF: bark; Robinia pseudoacacia ‘pendula’ (XX.004634), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
MG: bark; Magnolia acuminata var subcordata (XX.004364), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
NBG: bark; Picea, MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
A3: ; Crataegus stipulaceae (2006.1678), HFF, 01/12/2015.
Candelariella aurella f. aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2005)
NBG: greenhouse, timber; Tectona, HFF, 16/11/2005. yellow discs without thallus on timber
WI: herb garden, cement urn; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: Herbarium pond, mortar and granite of building; HFF, 10/01/2007.
NBG: cactus house pits, cement wall lintel; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
NBG: outside herbarium building, granite slab; MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
AY: timber seat laths; Picea, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: bark; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (1931.011658), MLC & HFF, 27/02/2007. tree since removed
P6: bark; Abies koreana (1959.011745), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
NBG: bark; Betula, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
A1: bark; Acer (XX.011836), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
MG: bark; Magnolia acuminata var subcordata (XX.004364), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus aliena (1932.006034), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus macrocarpa (XX.006035), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus robur ‘Fastigiata Cucullata’ (1930.006033), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus stellata (1933.006016), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
NBG: bark; near Prunus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
PB-3: bark; Colletia hystrix (XX.012970), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
R5: trunk bark; Ailanthus altissima (1923.010850), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Candelariella vitellina f. vitellina (Ach.) Müll.Arg. Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: rock; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
AY: old red sandstone; MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007.
WI: herb garden, stone; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: near end of herbaceous border, granite; HFF, 10/01/2007.
NBG: granite; MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
NBG: cactus house pits, cement wall lintel; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
NBG: Herbarium pond, granite lintel; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Capnophialophora pinophila (Nees) Borowska Asco First record: Anon (1881)
NBG: on stopper of glycerine bottle; Anon, –/–/1881. Muskett 88, 90, MM 6: 160, 1985
Carbonicola myrmecina (Ach.) Bendiksby & Timdal Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2000)
B3: bark; Cedrus, HFF, –/06/2000.
B3: bark; Cedrus (XX.009284), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
B3: bark; Cedrus, HFF & MM, 10/02/2005.
Catillaria chalybeia (Borrer) A.Massal. Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: rock; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
WI: herb garden, rock; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: quartzite; MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
RR: quartzite; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th.Fr. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2003)
AY: limestone; MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
AY: Wall, limestone; HFF, 02/02/2007.
NBG: cement urn; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: south side of greenhouse, Valentia slate potting tables; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
NBG: near incinerator, limestone; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Cerioporus squamosus (Huds.) Quél. Basidio First record: F Reid (1977)
C5: former Sorbus class, trunk; Sorbus decurrens, F Reid, 27/07/1977. DBN 62: 1977
C5: former Sorbus class, trunk; Sorbus decurrens, GP, 07/06/1979. DBN 44: 1981
C5: former Sorbus class, trunk base; Sorbus decurrens, MJPS, 05/06/1980. DBN 60: 1980 tree in poor health
P5: by pond, trunk; ?Quercus rubrum, GP, 29/06/1993. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
NU: beyond Teagasc gardens in Nursery, cut logs; Angiospermae, F Doherty, –/07/2004.
NU: south field nursery east wall, wood of cut log; Quercus ilex, S Duffy, 01/07/2015.
Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W.L.Culb. & C.F.Culb. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2015)
A2: trunk bark; Fraxinus ornus (1977.0039), HFF, 16/12/15.
Ceuthospora mahoniae Grove Mitosporic First record: HFF (2015)
B3: leaf upperside; Mahonia japonica (XX.009254), HFF, 02/07/2015. Microfungi on Land Plants, Ellis & Ellis, 162, fig 712
Ceuthospora melaleuca Ferd. & Winge Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1975)
NBG: leaf; Gingko biloba, MJPS, 08/10/1975. DBN 30: 1989 See Sacc. Syll. 22: 965
NBG: ; Gingko biloba, MJPS, –/09/1975. DBN 42: 1977
NBG: dead leaf; Gingko biloba, MJPS, 31/10/1976.
M1: dead leaf; Gingko biloba, MJPS, 08/12/1992. DBN 31: 2000
M1: dead leaf; Gingko biloba, HFF, 22/06/2000. DBN 31: 2000 under shubbery on shed leaf material harvested on 22nd 24th and 26th June
M1: dead leaf; Gingko biloba, MJPS, 07/08/2001. DBN 47: 2001 dwarf form of Ginko
Chalara fungorum (Sacc.) Sacc. Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1978)
NBG: ; Caragana arborensis, MJPS, 27/11/1978.
Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2015)
A2: shed stick; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Diversifolia Laciniata’ (XX.011040), MLC & HFF, 28/02/2015.
Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.) Pouzar Basidio First record: C Crosby (1978)
NBG: bark; Rhododendron, C Crosby, 28/11/1978. DBN 87: 1978 NBDC 5472163
CLW: trunk; Malus, DS, –/12/1990. DBN 12: 1991
NBG: trunk base; Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigata’, DS, 08/11/1991. DBN 48: 1991 in arboretum, as ‘pyrimidalis’
SL: chinese slope, stump; Angiospermae, HFF, 10/02/2005.
A5S: hazel class, bark of pole; Corylus avellana (XX.013920), MLC & HFF, 03/12/2014.
Chrysomyxa abietis (Wallr.) Unger Basidio Uredini First record: FWM (1918)
NBG: needles; Abies, FWM, –/–/1918. K(M)116952 FRDBI 904785
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (DC.) de Bary Basidio Uredini First record: WB Grove (1918)
NBG: needle; Picea pectinata, WB Grove, –/–/1918. FRDBI 905160
Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R.Laundon Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2003)
NBG: bark; Angiospermae, MLC & HFF, 09/07/2003. DNFC fwg minutes
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), HFF, 20/02/2007.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 27/02/2007. Tree since removed
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), JD, 18/02/2010.
A1: twigs shed from canopy; Acer, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer sterculiaceum franchetii (1910.011665), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
A2: bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Waterers variety’ (1888.011023), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014. excellent tree for displaying this species
R5: bark; Ailanthus altissima (1923.010850), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
A2: trunk bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Waterers Variety’ (1888.011023), MLC & HFF, 28/02/2015.
Circinaria calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
WI: herb garden, limestone statuary; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: ground on south side of greenhouse, limestone of gate post top fineal; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
NBG: limestone; MLC & HFF, 15/09/2011. Group outing
EG: limestone ashlar; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
WI: Irish native Burren area, limestone; S Kelly, 30/06/2015. Rock introduced with Burren grassland sods from path of Ardrahan motorway, South East Galway
NBG: Paeony border, cement footpath; near Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Superba’, HFF, 29/06/2015.
Circinaria contorta (Hoffm.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2003)
AY: limestone; MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
NBG: garden path at grass plots, cement slabs; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: south side of greenhouse, old cement large garden potting trough; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
AY: wall; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
NBG: order beds, limestone; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
RR: mossy quartzite; HFF, 30/01/2007.
P5: by pond, mossy bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
P5: near Bridge, trunk; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), HFF, 22/07/2014.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
PL: trunk; Metasequoia glyptostroboides (1948.009962), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
A2: by bandstand, Crataegus on a robust pleurocarpous moss, HFF, 01/12/2015. Soredial dispersal from pond bridge to Cratageus, soredia sizes larger in both. Pleurocarp soak to Pleurocarp sink, dries to form a tacky surface mucilage. East upriver winds, required for wind dispersal, hand vector dispersal theory more plausable.
Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
M1: stump; Pinus sylvestris, HFF, 20/02/2007.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), HFF, 10/01/2007.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), JD, 18/02/2010.
CL: behind curvilinear range, lignum of bog deal stump c. 4000 year old; Pinus sylvestris, MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
CLW-F: peat; Rhododendron coranthiflorum (1996.0172), MLC, 17/12/2014.
PL: trunk; Metasequoia glyptostroboides (1948.009962), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: lignum; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
M1: stump; Pinus sylvestris, HFF, 20/02/2007.
Cladonia floerkeana (Fr.) Floerke Asco Lichen First record: S Kelly (2012)
WI: Irish native raised bed, peat; S Kelly, 29/11/2012. Introduced from Mount Bellew, North East Galway for winter display
Cladonia portentosa (Dufour) Coem. Asco Lichen First record: S Kelly (2012)
WI: Irish native raised bed, peat; S Kelly, 29/11/2012. Introduced from Mount Bellew, North East Galway for winter display
Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
RR: Pleurocarpous mossy quartzite; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Cladosporium atriellum Cooke Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1971)
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 19/04/1971. DBN 23: 1974
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 10/03/1975. DBN 43: 1978
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 09/04/1975. DBN 5: 1975
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 29/03/1976. DBN 42: 1977
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 18/04/1979. DBN 83: 1982
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 16/04/1980. DBN 60: 1980 abundant each year
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 22/03/1982. DBN 14: 1982
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 26/04/1983. DBN 13: 1983
R5: fruit; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 15/12/1985. DBN 10: 1985
Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.) Link Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1975)
NBG: leaf; Angiospermae, MJPS, 28/03/1975. DBN 43: 1978 MS 513
Clavulina coralloides (L.) J.Schrot. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
VB: vine border, mulch; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Clavulina rugosa (Bull.) J.Schröt. Basidio First record: MJPS (1982)
NBG: soil with grass; Coniferae, MJPS, 27/10/1982. DBN 77: 1982
Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins Asco Lichen First record: JD (2010)
A1: bark; Acer sterculiaceum franchetii (1910.011665), JD, 18/02/2010.
A1: bark; Acer, HFF, –/–/2011.
A1: bark; Acer, MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
Clitocybe brumalis (Fr.) Gillet Basidio First record: MJPS (1970)
NBG: by large glasshouse, soil; Poaceae, MJPS, 16/10/1970. DBN 17: 1973 forming ring where tree had been felled
NBG: soil; Angiospermae, MJPS, 16/10/1970.
Clitocybe fragrans (Sow.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2007)
P3: soil; Pinus thunbergii (XX.007752), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
Clitocybe houghtonii (W.Phillips) Dennis Basidio First record: HFF (2014)
M2: soil; Rhododendron, HFF, –/–/2014.
Clitocybe rivulosa (Pers.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Clitopilus hobsonii (Berk.) P.D.Orton Basidio First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: bark; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, –/03/1976.
NBG: bark; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 08/03/1978. DBN 30: 1978 FRDBI 895460
Clitopilus prunulus (Scop.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Coenogonium pineti (Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: bark; Angiospermae, MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 19(8), 269, 1978 Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
P4: bark; Diospyros virginiana (XX.007804), MJPS, 10/06/1977. DBN 45: 1977
P4: bark; Diospyros virginiana (XX.007804), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
MG: bark; Magnolia acuminata var subcordata (XX.004364), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
P5: by pond, bark; Chionanthus retusus (1910.010616), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
P5: by pond, bark; Chionanthus retusus (1910.010616), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
Coleophoma cylindrospora (Desm.) Höhn. Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1975)
R5: leaf; Ailanthus altissima (1923.01085), MJPS, 24/04/1975. DBN 5: 1975
NBG: leaf; Phyllirea latifolia, MJPS, 06/05/1976.
NBG: leaf; Rapholepis umbellata, MJPS, 06/05/1976. DBN 42: 1977 Ir. Nat. J. 19(8): 269, 1978
NBG: leaf; Phyllirea latifolia, MJPS, 18/08/1978. DBN 24: 1979
Coleophoma empetri (Rostr.) Petrak Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: leaf; MJPS, 30/03/1976. DBN 3: 1978 MS 514
Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb. Basidio Uredini First record: AH (1947)
NBG: leaf; Petasites hybridus, AH, –/–/1947. O A contribution to the rust flora (Uredinales) of Ireland, Gjaerum, H, Lidia, 4, 40
NBG: leaf; Senecio vulgaris, AH, –/–/1947. O A contribution to the rust flora (Uredinales) of Ireland, Gjaerum, H, Lidia, 4, 40
Collema tenax var. tenax (Sw.) Ach. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
AY: Wall, mortar; HFF, 02/02/2007.
VB: on wall near steel gate to compost yard, mortar; MLC & HFF, 05/01/2015.
Colletotrichum dematium (Pers.) Grove Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1977)
NBG: pod; Fabaceae, MJPS, 03/10/1977. DBN 3: 1978 IMI 217009a.
NBG: ; Leguminosae, MJPS, 03/10/1977. Card Index, Scannell with Gyrothrix grisea and Pseudospiropes simplex
NBG: leaf; Epimedium, MJPS, 11/03/1985. DBN 10: 1985
NBG: stems; Epimedium, MJPS, 11/03/1985.
Colletotrichum nymphaeae (Pass.) Aa Mitosporic First record: BMS (1925)
PO: leaf; Nymphaea, BMS, 23/09/1925. ex Muskett 1976 no 571, TBMS 11: 18, 1926 NBDC 5470270, FRDBI 157185, Catalogue of Irish Fungi – VI. Deuteromycotina, Muskett & Malone, Proc R Ir Acad, 85B, 138
Coniophora puteana (Schumach.) P.Karst. Basidio First record: BMS (1925)
NBG: ; BMS, 23/09/1925. O13 and ?Glasnevin NBDC 5470144
NBG: wood; Angiospermae, JW Besant, 31/10/1935. DBN 636
NBG: potting tray in greenhouse, marine ply & peat soil; HFF, 16/11/2005.
Connopus acervatus (Fr.) K.W. Hughes, Mather & R.H. Petersen Basidio First record: G Pim (1878)
NBG: soil; G Pim, –/–/1878. Pim 1878: 285; Muskett 78, MM 2: 213, 1980
Conocybe leucopus Watling Basidio First record: HFF (2001)
C4: soil; Poaceae, HFF, 01/08/2001. DBN 38: 2001 O1537
Coprinellus disseminatus (Pers.) J.E.Lange Basidio First record: D Dixon (1976)
NBG: soil; Angiospermae, D Dixon, 15/07/1976. DBN 62: 1977
NBG: bark; Salix alba, MJPS, 08/10/1979. DBN 59: 1979
NBG: lawn at back of palm house, previously in fern house and also in mill field on conifer steps in heather bed, soil; Poaceae, NM & HFF, 31/05/2005.
NBG: log; Coniferae, HFF, 08/04/2005. O1437
NBG: soil; Poaceae, MM, 01/06/2005.
Coprinellus domesticus (Bolton) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson Basidio First record: P Dunne (1971)
NBG: wood; Angiospermae, P Dunne, 18/06/1971. Card Index, Scannell
Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson Basidio First record: B McBride (1975)
NBG: by rockery under trees, soil; Angiospermae, B McBride, 09/10/1975. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: by rockery under trees, soil; Fraxinus excelsior ‘pendula’, MJPS, 27/05/1985. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: soil; Betula, DS, –/11/1991. DBN 48: 1991
NBG: soil in grass; Tilia, NM, 13/07/2004.
O1/2: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo Basidio First record: D Dixon (1975)
MR: soil; D Dixon, 12/11/1975. DBN 5: 1975
NBG: soil; Poaceae, C Crosby, 27/12/1978. DBN 87: 1978
P4: soil; Fagus sylvatica ‘Purpurea’ (XX.007801), GP, 23/11/1994. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
C5: between Zelkova tree and Herbarium building, soil, garden lawn; Poaceae, G Pertl, 31/12/2002.
NBG: gravel; R Breegan & GP, 04/04/2005. Dahncke 541
Coprinopsis marcescibilis (Britzelm.) Orstadius & E.Larss. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Coprinus comatus (O.F.Müll.) Pers. Basidio First record: WW (1803)
NBG: near the walks and amongst the garden sweepings, soil; WW, –/–/1803. Wade 1804: 176, MM2: 215
TX: soil; Poaceae, NM, 07/11/2005.
NBG: soil; Poaceae, HFF, 15/11/2005.
Corynespora olivacea (Wallr.) M.B.Ellis Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1975)
B3: lawn behind herbaceous border, bark; Tilia, MJPS, 05/05/1975. DBN 5: 1975 Notes: IMI 193370, common
Cribraria dictydioides Cooke & Balf. Myxo First record: FWM (1894)
NBG: glasshouse, rachis; Pteridium aquilinum, FWM, 15/02/1894. Pim & Moore, Ir. Nat. 3: 89, 1894,
NBG: in tubs in the large cool fern house, on clay; FWM, 03/05/1900. Moore, Ir. Nat. 9: 287, 1900
NBG: glasshouse, on litter in hothouse containers; G Lister, 23/09/1925. DBN Lister TBMS 11: 23-24, 1926, Ing & Mitchell 1980: 284, DBN, Ing & McHugh 1988: 105; Ing & McHugh 2012: 7
Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kambly Basidio First record: Anon (1874)
NBG: soil; Anon, –/–/1874. Gasteromycete Records, Ing, Muskett & Malone 1978 MM 1: 7, 1978; FRDBI 63223, NBDC 5469641, Muskett 48
Cryptosphaeria eunomia (Fr.) Fuckel Asco First record: MJPS (1985)
B3: lawn behind herbaceous border, dead twigs; Fraxinus excelsior, MJPS, 22/04/1985. DBN 10: 1985 on ground
Cucurbitaria berberidis (Pers.) Gray Asco First record: HFF (2004)
VG: On a cankerous prickly branch; Berberis x stenophylla ‘irwinii’ (1930.009518), HFF, 10/08/2004. Microfungi on Land Plants, Ellis & Ellis, 93, fig 368, with brown muriform ascospores
Cucurbitaria caraganae P.Karst. Asco First record: MJPS (1978)
NBG: pod; Caragana arborensis, MJPS, 27/11/1978.
Cumminsiella mirabilissima (Peck) Nannf. Basidio Uredini First record: PA Murphy (1932)
NBG: leaf; Berberis aquifolia, PA Murphy, 18/08/1932. DBN 558
NBG: leaf; Mahonia, MJPS, 27/05/1970. Card Index, Scannell
DS: by pond, leaf; Mahonia aquifolium ‘Undulata’, MJPS, 29/04/1982. DBN 77: 1982 Card Index, Scannell
DS: by pond, leaf; Mahonia aquifolium ‘Undulata’, MJPS, 10/12/1982. Card Index, Scannell
VG: leaf; Mahonia aquifolium ‘Atrovirens’ (XX.001071), MJPS, 29/04/1982. DBN 83: 1982 not a heavy infection
NBG: leaves, both sides; Mahonia, MJPS, 08/04/1982. DBN 14: 1982 Shrub compromised
NBG: leaf, live, underside; Mahonia, HFF, 10/08/2004. Microfungi on Land Plants, Ellis & Ellis, 162, fig 711
B3: leaf, live, underside; Mahonia japonica (XX.009254), HFF, 02/07/2015. Microfungi on Land Plants, Ellis & Ellis, 162, fig 711
Cuphophyllus pratensis (Fr.) Bon Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
A5S: Far grounds, soil; Poaceae, HFF, –/–/2013.
Cyathus olla (Batsch) Pers. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2005)
VB: wood chips; Buddleja davidii, MLC & HFF, 20/10/2005.
NBG: greenhouse pits, soil; C Penney, 08/10/2014.
Cyathus striatus (Huds.) Pers. Basidio First record: D Moore (1878)
NBG: soil; D Moore, –/–/1878. Gasteromycete Records, Ing, Muskett & Malone 1978: 7 Muskett 78, FRDBI 63704, NBDC 5469651, Pim 1878: 292
PH: west side of main back door, soil; HFF, 21/07/2005.
PH: soil; C Penney & S Wilkie, 08/08/2005.
Cyrtidula hippocastani (DC.) R.C.Harris Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
A1: twigs shed from canopy; MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011. New to Co. Dublin.
Cyrtidula quercus (A.Massal.) Minks Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
O1/2: twigs; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
Cytospora populina (Pers.) Rabenh. Asco First record: MJPS (1985)
NBG: twig; Fraxinus excelsior, MJPS, 23/04/1985. DBN 10: 1985 conidiospores exuded, white mass when collected
Dacrymyces stillatus Fr. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2007)
NBG: bark mulch; Pinus contorta, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
Dendrodochium rubellum Sacc. Mitosporic First record: FWM (1893)
NBG: glasshouse, on decaying pseudobulb; Catasetum, FWM, 21/12/1893. Anon, Ir Nat, 3, 63 1894, MM 6: 150, 1985. plant imported from Brazil
Dendrographa decolorans (Turner & Borrer) Ertz & Tehler Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
P3: bark; Liriodendron tulipifera (XX.007755), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014. new for NBG
O1: on bark at trunk base; Carya cordifolia (XX.003412), HFF, 08/12/2015.
Dendryphion nanum (C.G.Nees) Hughes Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: leaf; Ilex aquifolium, MJPS, 26/03/1976. IMI 202379 d
NBG: leaf; Ilex aquifolium, MJPS, 26/04/1976.
Desmosorus oncidii Ritschel, Oberw. & Berndt Basidio Uredini First record: FWM (1893)
OH: on orchid; Orchidaceae, FWM, –/–/1913. MM 3: 361, 1981, Muskett 140, 381, 405
OH: on orchid; Epidendrum vitellinum, FWM, –/–/1913. MM 3: 361, 1981, Muskett 140, 381, 405, Legon & Henrici 2006: 356
OH: on orchid; Orchidaceae, FWM, –/–/1893. MM 3: 361, 1981, Muskett 140, 381, 405, Legon & Henrici 2006: 335
Dialonectria episphaeria (Tode) Cooke Asco First record: FWM (1895)
NBG: glasshouse, stem; Eriopsis, FWM, 17/01/1895. Dublin Microscopical Society, Anon, Ir Nat, 4, 73
Diatrype disciformis (Hoffm.) Fr. Asco First record: B McBride (1975)
NBG: wood; Fagus sylvatica, B McBride, 20/08/1975. DBN 5: 1975
NBG: wood; Fagus sylvatica, MJPS, 29/02/1980. DBN 60: 1980
Diatrype stigma (Hoffm.) Fr. Asco First record: R Farrell (1978)
NBG: dead branch; Ilex dipyrena, R Farrell, 21/06/1978. DBN 10: 1985
NBG: wood; Ilex dipyrena, R Farrell, 03/04/1985. DBN 42: 1978 dead wood of attached branch
Diatrypella quercina (Pers.) Cooke Asco First record: MJPS (1985)
O1/2: fallen branchlets; Quercus, MJPS, 12/04/1985. DBN 10: 1985
O1/2: fallen branchlets; Quercus palustris, MJPS, 03/04/1985. DBN 10: 1985
O1/2: branch; Quercus robur, MJPS, 03/04/1985.
Dictyochaeta parva (S. Hughes & W.B. Kendr.) Hol.-Jech. Asco First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: leaf; Rhododendron, MJPS, 26/03/1976. DBN 28: 1977 only previously recorded from New Zealand, IMI 202384 b.
Dictyographa cinerea Müll. Arg. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
B3: bark; Platanus x hispanica ‘Acerifolia’ (XX.009229), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
SC: bark; Prunopitys andina (XX.013368), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Didymella ligulicola (Baker, Dimock & Davis) v.Arx Asco First record: J Seager (1969)
NBG: flower; Chrysanthemum, J Seager, 29/07/1969. Kinsealey Plant Pathology Records
Diplocarpon rosae Wolf Asco First record: BMS (1925)
NBG: ; Rosa, BMS, 23/09/1925. O13 and ?Glasnevin NBDC 5470272
Diplodia laurina Sacc. Mitosporic First record: HFF (2005)
G1: dead stem; Laurus nobilis, HFF, 04/02/2005. anamoprh of ?Cucurbitaria
Diplodina eurhododendri Voss. Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: leaf; Rhododendron, MJPS, 26/03/1976. DBN 28: 1977 IMI 202384a
Diploicia canescens (Dickson) A.Massal. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2004)
A1: bark, trunk; Acer, HFF, 21/05/2004.
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (XX.011637), HFF, 05/02/2007. Tree since removed
C3: bark; Juniperus excelsa (XX.011866), HFF, 30/01/2007.
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (XX.011637), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
B3: bark; Platanus x hispanica ‘Acerifolia’ (XX.009229), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O1: bark; Quercus (1933.004105), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
B3: bark; Platanus x hispanica ‘Acerifolia’ (XX.009229), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
C3: bark; Juniperus excelsa (XX.011866), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
O1: bark; Quercus faginea (XX.004109), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
PL: trunk; Metasequoia glyptostroboides (1948.009962), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
Discohainesia oenotherae (Cooke & Ellis) Nannf. Asco First record: MJPS (1977)
PO: leaf; Nuphar, MJPS, –/08/1977. Card Index, Scannell
Dothiora taxicola (Sacc.) M.E.Barr Asco First record: C Crosby (1995)
TX: leaf; Taxus baccata ‘Davisii’ (1988.006977), C Crosby, 20/12/1995. DBN 8: 1996
NBG: leaves of dead branch; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, NM & HFF, 27/04/2005.
Dothiorella davidiae Zambett., Waliyar & Scannell Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1975)
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 03/03/1975. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 20/03/1975. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 26/03/1975. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 01/05/1975. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 29/05/1975. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 10/09/1975.
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 29/03/1976. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 29/03/1976. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 08/06/1976. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 10/12/1976. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 30/05/1977. DBN 35: 1977
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 08/02/1978. DBN 30: 1978
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 21/02/1978. DBN 30: 1978
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 19/12/1978. DBN 13: 1979
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 09/01/1979. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 06/12/1979. DBN 59: 1979
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 13/12/1979. DBN 59: 1979
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 18/12/1979. DBN 59: 1979
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 19/12/1979. DBN 64: 1979
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 20/12/1979. DBN 60: 1980
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 20/12/1979. DBN 64: 1979
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 31/12/1979. DBN 60: 1980
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 10/01/1980. DBN 60: 1980
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 18/02/1980. DBN 60: 1980
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 18/11/1980. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 02/01/1981. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 16/01/1981. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 27/01/1981. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 05/02/1981. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 16/03/1981. DBN 85: 1981.
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 02/04/1981. DBN 85: 1981
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 13/01/1982. DBN 9: 1984
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 24/02/1982. DBN 14: 1982
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 09/11/1982. DBN 77: 1982
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 04/01/1983. DBN 9: 1984
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 17/02/1983. DBN 13: 1983
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 04/03/1983. DBN 13: 1983
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 07/03/1983. DBN 13: 1983
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 31/03/1983. DBN 13: 1983
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 20/04/1983. DBN 13: 1983
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 25/04/1983. DBN 13: 1983
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 17/06/1983. DBN 9: 1984
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 29/06/1983. DBN 9: 1984
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 13/12/1984. DBN 83: 1984
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 31/12/1984. DBN 45: 1985
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 04/02/1985. DBN 10: 1985
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 27/03/1985. DBN 10: 1985
P5: by pond, fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 27/01/1986. DBN 39: 1986
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 05/02/1988. DBN 45: 1988
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 21/02/1989. DBN 30: 1989
NBG: fruit; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 28/02/1990. DBN 10: 1990
P4: fruit; Davidia involucrata (XX.007806), HFF, 11/02/2005.
Endophragmiella boewei (J.L. Crane) S. Hughes Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1977)
NBG: needles; Pinus, MJPS, 26/03/1977. DBN 28: 1977 only the second collection from Europe, the other was on cones, IMI 202383 a.
Endophragmiella pinicola M.B.Ellis Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1978)
RR: needles, fallen; Pinus, MJPS, 24/02/1978. DBN 10: 1978 first described by Ellis in 1973 from material collected in Wales
Enterographa crassa (DC.) Fée Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (XX.011637), HFF, 05/02/2007. Tree since removed
B3: trunk; Platanus x hispanica ‘Acerifolia’ (XX.009229), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014. new for NBG
W: trunk bark; Platanus orientalis (XX.013979), MLC & HFF, 28/02/2015.
Entoloma clypeatum (L.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 16/09/2014.
Entoloma incanum (Fr.) Hesler Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, –/–/2011.
Entoloma sinuatum (Pers.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: NM & HFF (2005)
NBG: near Tolka river, soil, catkin seed capsule cotton; Populus, NM & HFF, 15/08/2005.
Epibryon interlamellare Döbb. Asco First record: HFF & S Ball (2000)
CLW: Turf edging originally harvested in Co Longford, leaf; Polytrichum, HFF & S Ball, –/11/2000. DBN 31: 2000
Epicoccum nigrum Link Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1975)
R5: leaf stalks; Ailanthus altissima (1923.010850), MJPS, 24/04/1975.
Erysiphe adunca (Wallr.) Fr. Asco First record: HFF (2001)
MR: leaf; Salix phylicifolia (1970.0402), HFF, 01/11/2001. DBN 48: 2001 Tree now removed
Erysiphe alphitoides (Griffon & Maubl.) U.Braun & S.Takam. Asco First record: HFF (2004)
O1/2: leaf, live; Quercus, HFF, 10/08/2004.
O2: leaf; Quercus pyrenaica (1903.006069), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Erysiphe berberidis DC. Asco First record: G Pim (1878)
NBG: leaf; G Pim, –/–/1878. Pim 1878, MM 4: 187, 1983
NBG: leaf; Mahonia aquifolium, B Ing, –/08/1986. Letter to N Weyer Brown 29 xii 1986, Ing, Praeger Committee Report, 1986, 6
B1: leaf; Berberis angulosa (1909.011912), HFF & M Connolly, 02/11/2001. DBN 48: 2001
B1: leaf; Berberis canadensis (1888.011905), HFF & M Connolly, 02/11/2001. DBN 48: 2001
CM: leaf; Berberis (2002.3533), HFF & M Connolly, 05/09/2014.
Erysiphe betae (Vaňha) Weltzien Asco First record: HFF (2005)
NBG: tropical bed, leaf; Beta vulgaris, HFF, 17/08/2005. red spinach leaf
Erysiphe circaeae L.Junell Asco First record: MJPS (1979)
NBG: leaf; Circaea lutetiana, MJPS, 07/09/1979.
NBG: leaf, live; Circaea lutetiana, HFF, 10/08/2004.
Erysiphe heraclei DC. Asco First record: MJPS (1979)
NBG: under beech on top of peat hill, leaf; Heracleum sphondylium, MJPS, 07/09/1979. DBN 44: 1981
PL: island in the pond, leaves; Heracleum sphondylium, MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
Erysiphe necator Schwein. Asco First record: D Moore (1854)
NBG: glasshouse, ; Vitis vinifera, D Moore, –/–/1854. Muskett 14, MM 4: 210, 1983, Moore PRIA 6: 120, 1854
Erysiphe pisi DC. Asco First record: HFF (2005)
C7: in semicircular beds, leaf, live; Pisum sativum, HFF, 08/08/2005.
EG: leaf; Lathryus, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Erysiphe trifolii Grev. Asco First record: JAC (1989)
NBG: leaf, live; Lathyrus odoratus, JAC, 28/09/1989. FRDBI 272580
Erythricium aurantiacum (Lasch) D.Hawksw. & A.Henrici Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2007)
B3: lichen on bark; Physcia tenella on Magnolia soulangeana speciosa (1974.1457), MLC & HFF, 25/01/2007.
R5: lichen on bark; Physcia tenella on Prunus (XX.010846), HFF, 30/01/2007.
A1: lichen; Acer (XX.011836), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A5: Sorbus class, low branches; Sorbus mougeotii (1941.010906), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: trunk; Physcia tenella on Quercus robur ‘Fastigiata Cucullata’ (1930.006033), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
R5: trunk; Ailanthus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A2: lichen; Fraxinus ornus (1977.0039), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014. #51 Far grounds A2
G2: Physcia tenella on bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Pendula’ (XX.009899), MLC & HFF, 10/04/2014. Tree felled and removed on this day
A1: lichen; Physcia tenella (1897.011679), HFF, 16/12/15.
A3: (XX.010915), HFF, 01/12/2015.
Eutypella stellulata (Fr.) Sacc. Asco First record: MJPS (1976)
A3: wood; Ulmus glabra, MJPS, 29/03/1976. DBN 42: 1977
A3: wood; Ulmus glabra, MJPS, 29/04/1976.
Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2003)
P4: bark; Diospyros lotus (XX.007807), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
P5: by pond, bark; Rhododendron, HFF, 11/02/2005.
P4: bark; Picea koyamae (XX.007810), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), HFF, 10/01/2007.
NBG: fallen twigs; Angiospermae, JD, 18/02/2010.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: bark of bough; Quercus macrocarpa (XX.006035), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
R5: trunk; Ailanthus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer henryi (1910.011672), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
A2: bark; Fraxinus ornus (1977.0039), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014. #51 Far grounds A2
B2: near lower part of herbaceous border, bark of branch, shed from canopy; Castanea, MLC, HFF & BO’L, 04/06/2014.
G2: bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Pendula’ (XX.009899), MLC & HFF, 10/04/2014. Tree felled and removed on this day
P4: trunk; Diospyros lotus (XX.007807), HFF, 22/07/2014.
P5: near end of pond by lily patch, bark of branch; Rhododendron (1971.0642), HFF, 22/07/2014.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
PL: bark of branch; Metasequoia glyptostroboides (1948.009962), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
R4: bark of branch; Morus australis (XX.011167), MLC & HFF, 04/09/2014.
This species occurs at low frequency and is sensitive to air quality deterioration. An effort has been made in 2014 to census the population to each individual shrub or tree in the NBG grounds.
Flammulina velutipes (Curtis) Singer Basidio First record: D Buckley (1973)
NBG: stumps; Magnolia, D Buckley, 02/02/1973. DBN 17: 1973
NU: beds in nursery, wood; B Sayers, 29/01/1987. DBN 60: 1987 Stems are not dark – doubtful material is that of Flammulina velutipes unless unusual change in colour on drying
Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: bark; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
P4: bark; Diospyros virginiana (XX.007804), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
P4: bark; Fagus sylvatica ‘Purpurea’ (XX.007801), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/02/2005.
R5: bark; Ailanthus altissima (1923.010850), HFF, 11/02/2005.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), JD, 18/02/2010.
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (XX.011637), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus aliena (1932.006034), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus macrocarpa (XX.006035), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
R5: trunk; Ailanthus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
C4: near herbarium, bark; Sorbus domestica (XX.004633), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
G2: bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Pendula’ (XX.009899), MLC & HFF, 10/04/2014. Tree felled and removed on this day
O1: bark; Quercus hispanica lucombeana (XX.004099), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
RW: bark; Quercus lobata (1914.007667), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
A3: ; Crataegus (1883.009926), HFF, 01/12/2015.
G1: bough bark; Prunus ‘Tai Haku’ (1944.009211), HFF, 16/12/15.
P6: trunk bark; Liriodendron tulipifera (XX.013831), MLC & HFF, 28/02/2015.
Flavoplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: rock; MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
AY: brick; MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
AY: limestone wall; HFF, 02/02/2007.
RSG: wall; HFF, 20/02/2007.
NBG: Herbarium pond, brick; HFF, 10/01/2007.
NBG: cement urn; HFF, 30/01/2007.
NBG: south side of greenhouse, old cement large garden potting trough; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
NBG: brick; MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
RSG: limestone of perimeter wall; MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
Flavoplaca flavocitrina (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: JD (2010)
RR: limestone; JD, 18/02/2010. N Smyth’s annotated copy Dobson 2005: 102
Fomitopsis betulina (Bull.) B.K. Cui, M.L. Han & Y.C. Dai Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
T2: by Tolka river, tree trunk high up; Betula pubescens ‘Pendula’ (XX.007712), MLC & HFF, 03/12/2014.
Flavoplaca limonia (Nimis & Poelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
EG: limestone; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Fuligo septica (L.) F.H.Wigg. Myxo First record: NM, MLC & HFF (2004)
NBG: compost; NM, MLC & HFF, 12/05/2004. Card Index, Scannell
Fumago vagans Pers. Mitosporic First record: BMS (1925)
NBG: leaf; BMS, 23/09/1925. O13 and ?Glasnevin NBDC 5470306
MR: leaf; Rhododendron, MJPS, –/–/2003. DNFCfwg
Fusicladium pyracanthae (Thüm.) O. Rostr. Mitosporic First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
NBG: fruit; Pyracantha coccinea, MJPS, 05/07/1982. Card Index
Fusicolla merismoides (Corda) Gräfenhan, Seifert & Schroers Mitosporic First record: JD Murray (1984)
NBG: glasshouse, shoot tip; Hydrangea macrophylla, JD Murray, 08/03/1984. DBN 10: 1985 forming a cream coloured gelatinous cap
Galerina marginata (Batsch) Kühner Basidio First record: HFF (2004)
NBG: soil; Coniferae, HFF, 14/10/2004. normal with tiny veil remnants on cap margin
Galerina mniophila (Lasch) Kuhner Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
A5S: Far grounds, soil; Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, HFF, –/–/2013.
Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. Basidio First record: MJPS (1978)
NBG: trunk; Castanea sativa, MJPS, 14/11/1978. DBN 84: 1978 Card Index, Scannell
NBG: trunk; Phillyrea latifolia, J Lang, 25/09/1980. DBN 97: 1980
P5: by pond, trunk; Quercus rubra, HFF, 15/08/2005.
NBG: wood; Fagus sylvatica, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
A4: trunk; Fagus sylvatica, MLC & HFF, 22/08/2014.
Ganoderma australe (Fr.) Pat. Basidio First record: MJPS (1976)
LA-F: trunk; Gleditisia triacanthos, MJPS, –/09/1976. DBN 62: 1977 decayed fallen tree now removed
O1/2: trunk; Quercus ilex, MJPS, 14/11/1978.
O1/2: trunk base; Quercus ilex, N McLoughlin & MJPS, 11/09/1978. DBN 84: 1978 Card Index, Scannell
NBG: trunk; Carpinus betulus, DS, 20/11/1991. DBN 51: 1991
P4: trunk; Fagus sylvatica ‘Purpurea’ (XX.007801), GP, 23/11/1994. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection, Copper Beech
NBG: trunk; Fagus, HFF, 15/08/2005.
P4: tree trunk; Fagus sylvatica ‘Purpurea’ (XX.007801), E Woodbyrne, 19/09/2012.
Geastrum triplex Jungh. Basidio First record: S O’Brien (2002)
M1: near Weeping Willow, soil; Rhododendron, S O’Brien, –/10/2002. Also in NBG 12990, Peter McDermott 21/11/2001
Geopora sumneriana (Cooke) M.Torre Asco First record: K MacArthur (1971)
RR: soil; Coniferae, K MacArthur, 11/03/1971. DBN 30: 1971
NBG: soil; Cedrus atlantica, MJPS, 26/02/1971. DBN 29: 1971 Card Index, Scannell
B3: soil; Cephalotaxus harringtonia ‘Fastigata’ (XX.009219), MJPS, 28/04/1979. DBN 44: 1981
B3: soil; Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. drupacea (XX.009218), V Ingram, 18/04/1979. Card Index, Scannell
TX: soil; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, MJPS, 24/04/1979. Card Index, Scannell
B3: soil; Cedrus, MJPS, 13/12/1984. DBN 83: 1984 Card Index, Scannell
NBG: near vegetable garden wall, soil; Taxus, GP, 18/02/1993. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
NBG: soil; Taxus, P Maher, 10/02/1993. DBN 3: 1993
B3: soil; Cedrus libani, HFF & M Wislocka, 03/02/2004. DBN 1: 2004
Gliomastix cerealis (P.Karst.) C.H.Dickinson Mitosporic First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: leaf; Ilex aquifolium, MJPS, 26/03/1976. DBN 28: 1977 IMI 202379 f. Gyrothrix grisea Piroz.
NBG: pod; Fabaceae, MJPS, 03/10/1977. DBN 3: 1978 mainly a tropical species rarely recorded in Europe, third CMI collection, IMI217009a.
NBG: pod; Leguminosae, MJPS, 03/10/1977. Card Index, Scannell with Colletotrichum dematium and Pseudospiropes simplex
Gliophorus psittacinus (Schaeff.) Herink Basidio First record: HFF (2011)
A5S: Far grounds, soil; Poaceae, HFF, –/–/2011.
Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulfen) P.Karst. Basidio First record: PMcD (2004)
NBG: in front of pits, wooden frame; PMcD, 09/01/2004.
Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P. Heluta Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
EG: leaf; Cucurbitaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Golovinomyces echinopis (U. Braun) V.P. Heluta Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
B2: leaf; Echinops ritro ‘Veitch’s Blue’, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
New to Co. Dublin and Ireland.
Golovinomyces magnicellulatus (U. Braun) V.P. Heluta Asco First record: JAC (1989)
NBG: leaf, live; Phlox paniculata, JAC, 28/09/1989. FRDBI 272572
M1: near Socrates, leaves; Phlox, HFF, –/–/2003. DNFCfwg
Golovinomyces sordidus (L. Junell) V.P. Heluta Asco First record: HFF (2004)
NBG: leaf, live; Plantago major, HFF, 10/08/2004. Microfungi on Land Plants, Ellis & Ellis, 401
Golovinomyces sparsus (U. Braun) V.P. Heluta Asco First record: HFF & M Connolly (2001)
NBG: leaf; Viburnum, HFF & M Connolly, 02/11/2001. DBN 48: 2001
Gyalideopsis anastomosans P.James & Vězda Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014. new to NBG
Gyalolechia flavovirescens (With.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting Asco Lichen First record: JD (2010)
O1: Craobh, rock; JD, 18/08/2010.
O1: Craobh, granite at base of Craobh sculpture; MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. Asco First record: GP (1988)
B2: flowerbed; GP, –/04/1988. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
Hebeloma sinapizans (Paulet) Gillet Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Helvella acetabulum (L.) Quél. Asco First record: HFF (2004)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, HFF, 26/04/2004. Hongos de Espana y de Europa, Gerhart, Vila, Llimona, 83
Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. Asco First record: GP (1997)
TX: soil; Corylus avellana, GP, –/10/1997. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
A4: soil; Fagus sylvatica, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Hercospora tiliae (Pers.) Tul. & C.Tul. Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A2: stick; Tilia, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Hortiboletus rubellus (Krombh.) Simonini, Vizzini & Gelardi Basidio First record: PMcD (1982)
O1/2: soil; Quercus ilex, PMcD, 01/09/1982. DBN 44: 1981
Hygrocybe cantharellus (Schwein.) Murrill Basidio First record: RWG Dennis (1955)
NBG: hothouse, soil in pot plant; Hippomane longifolia, RWG Dennis, 10/08/1955. K(M)61116, MM 2: 231, 1981, Dennis & Hassell, Ir. Nat. J. 11: 334, 1955, Muskett 862 FRDBI 476977, NBDC 5473147
CLW: peat; HFF, –/11/2000.
Hygrocybe chlorophana (Fr.) Wünsche Basidio First record: NM (2005)
CL: peat; Polytrichum, NM, 10/02/2005.
Hygrocybe conica (Schaeff.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: E Willams & H Williams (2004)
DG: soil; Poaceae, E Willams & H Williams, 18/10/2004.
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
A5S: by wall in Birch class, soil; Poaceae, MLC, –/–/2014.
Hygrocybe laeta (Pers.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MLC (2014)
CLW-F: peat; Rhododendron rarilepidotum (1996.0193), MLC, 17/12/2014.
Hygrocybe punicea (Fr.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: NM (2005)
CLW: peat; Polytrichum, NM, 23/02/2005.
Hygrocybe virginea (Wulfen) P.D.Orton & Watling Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. Basidio First record: C Torrend (1908)
PH: soil; #N/A, –/–/1908. Gasteromycete Records, Ing, NBDC 5469724, MM 1: 8, 1978, Muskett 337, FRDBI 65722
Hymenopellis radicata (Relhan) R.H.Petersen Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Fagus sylvatica, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Hymenoscyphus herbarum (Pers. ex Fr.) Dennis Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A5S: hazel class, lignum of cut pole; Corylus avellana (XX.013920), MLC & HFF, 03/12/2014.
Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Flörke) H.Mayrh.& Poelt Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2005)
C2-E: bark; Ailanthus vilmoriniana (XX.013798), HFF, 11/02/2005.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/02/2005.
A1: bark; Acer (XX.011841), HFF, 27/02/2007.
A1: bark; Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Rafinesquianum’ (1887.011706), HFF, 27/02/2007.
A1: bark; Acer velutinum f. glabrescens (1887.011724), HFF, 06/02/2007. Tree since removed
A1: bark; Acer x coriaceum (XX.011637), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
C2-E: trunk bark; Ailanthus vilmoriniana (XX.013798), MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
R4: bark; Morus australis (XX.011167), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
A3: bough axils; Sorbus pseudovertesensis (XX.010915), HFF, 16/12/15.
A3: ; (XX.010915), HFF, 01/12/2015. Important source tree for gardens []propagule size, soredia dispersed population, dispersal NW winds after AM rain, and settling more on S than E faces of tree trunks with PM drying seeps, 500 to 800 m distant.
Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: M Forrest (1974)
B2: soil; Compositae, M Forrest, 14/10/1974. DBN 61: 1975 Card Index, Scannell
WI: timber; #N/A, –/11/1991. DBN 48: 1991 edging of path
CLE: soil; Callitris columellaris (XX.008914), H Recht, 12/12/2002. host plant very unwell
VG: log by pathside; Quercus (XX.000984), NM & HFF, 27/04/2005.
CM: cemetery border, log; MLC & HFF, 04/09/2014.
Hypholoma lateritium (Schaeff.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. Asco Lichen First record: MJPS (1976)
NBG: bark; Davidia involucrata, MJPS, 29/03/1976. filed under Parmelia sulcata
P4: bark; Diospyros virginiana (XX.007804), MJPS, 10/06/1977. DBN 45: 1977 filed under Parmelia subaurifera
R5: bark; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), MJPS, 10/06/1977. DBN 45: 1977
R6: bark; Crataegus x dippeliana (1915.010838), MJPS, 10/06/1977. DBN 45: 1977
NBG: bark; Cedrus, HFF, –/06/2000.
B3: bark; Cedrus libani (XX.009284), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
P4: bark; Diospyros lotus (XX.007807), MLC & HFF, 07/07/2003.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/02/2005.
R5: bark; Ailanthus altissima (1923.010850), HFF, 11/02/2005.
R5: bark; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), HFF, 11/02/2005.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 27/02/2007.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), HFF, 10/01/2007.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007.
P6: by pond, bark; Picea omorika (XX.013800), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
NBG: bark; Betula, MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), JD, 18/02/2010.
A1: bark; Acer (XX.011836), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer henryi (1910.011672), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus aliena (1932.006034), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: twigs; Quercus stellata (1933.006016), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
R5: trunk; Ailanthus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
A4: ; Alnus (1988.0654), HFF, 01/12/2015.
G1: bough bark; Prunus ‘Tai Haku’ (1944.009211), HFF, 16/12/15.
Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Havaas Asco Lichen First record: MRDS, BJC & CJBH (1976)
NBG: bark, trunk; Angiospermae, MRDS, BJC & CJBH, 10/04/1976. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 19(8), 269, 1978 and Seaward, B.R.C. Mapping Card, 3213
P5: by pond, bark; Rhododendron, HFF, 11/02/2005.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/02/2005.
P6: bark; Abies koreana (1959.011745), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
NBG: bark; near Prunus, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
O1/2: twig; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
Hypomyces chrysospermus Tul. & C.Tul. Asco First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
O1/2: carpophore rotten; Xerocomus chrysenteron, MLC & HFF, –/–/2014.
Hypotrachyna revoluta (Flörke) Hale Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2005)
C3: Rhamnus class, bark; Rhamnus petiolaris (1960.002826), HFF, 11/05/2005.
P5: by pond, bark; Rhododendron, HFF, 11/02/2005.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 11/02/2005.
R5: bark; Ailanthus altissima (1923.010850), HFF, 11/02/2005.
R5: bark; Phellodendron chinense (XX.009055), HFF, 11/02/2005.
P5: near Bridge, bark; Prunus ‘Okumiyako’ (XX.010617), HFF, 10/01/2007.
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007.
P6: bark; Abies koreana (1959.011745), MLC & HFF, 30/12/2007.
A1: bark; Acer palmatum (1919.011692), MLC & HFF, 21/03/2011.
O2: trunk; Quercus aliena (1932.006034), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
PL: twigs; Liquidamber styraciflua (XX.009955), MLC & HFF, 11/08/2014.
A2: trunk bark; Fraxinus ornus (1977.0039), HFF, 16/12/15.
A3: ; (1899.009929), HFF, 01/12/2015. thallus axils rounded and soralia small flat consoredial patches 0.8 mhz
Hypoxylon fragiforme (Pers.) J.Kickx f. Asco First record: HFF (2014)
NU: bark of cut log; Fagus sylvatica ‘Purpurea’ (XX.007801), HFF, 05/09/2014. remnants of huge tree by pond
NU: bark of cut log; Fagus sylvatica ‘Purpurea’ (XX.007801), C Penney, 01/07/2015. remnants of huge tree by pond
Hypoxylon fuscum (Pers.) Fr. Asco First record: HFF & MLC (2014)
A5S: hazel class, bark; Corylus avellana (XX.013920), HFF & MLC, 03/12/2014.
Hysterium angustatum Alb. & Schw. Asco First record: MJPS (1971)
P3: bark; Liriodendron tulipifera (XX.007755), MJPS, 05/04/1971. DBN 26: 1973 Card Index, Scannell
NBG: old crinkled bark of a wind-felled ash; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Elegans Superba’, MJPS, 05/04/1971. DBN 22: 1980 Tree since removed
EG: near wall, decorticate wood; Burseria spinosa, MJPS, 09/07/1979. DBN 60: 1980 Card Index, Scannell
A2: bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Elegans Superba’ (1885.011022), MJPS, 20/03/1980. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: Tolka riverside trees, bark; Platanus orientalis, MJPS, 29/06/1983. DBN 9: 1984
R6: bark; Juglans regia (XX.010837), HFF, 11/02/2005.
Hysterium pulicare Pers. Asco First record: HFF (2015)
A1: trunk bark; Acer miyabei (1897.011679), HFF, 16/12/15. Brown walled, ascospore 3 celled, ends paler
Illosporiopsis christiansenii (B.L.Brady & D.L.Hawksw.) D.L.Hawksw. Basidio First Record: MLC & HFF (2011)
C3: Rhamnus class, bark; Physcia tenella, MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
O2: lichen; Physcia tenella on Quercus stellata (1933.006016), MLC & HFF, 03/05/2011.
G2: Physcia tenella on bark; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Pendula’ (XX.009899), MLC & HFF, 10/04/2014. Tree felled and removed on this day
Imleria badia (Fr.) Vizzini Basidio First record: MJPS (1973)
RR: soil; Coniferae, MJPS, 26/07/1973. DBN 23: 1974
Inocybe adaequata (Britzelm.) Sacc. Basidio First record: NM & HFF (2005)
A4: soil; Betula, NM & HFF, 15/08/2005. Encylopaedia Fungi of Britain & Europe, Jordan, 1995, 288
Inocybe calamistrata (Fr.) Gillet Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, HFF, –/–/2013.
Inocybe erubescens A.Blytt. Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, HFF, –/–/2013.
Inocybe flocculosa Sacc. Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
O1/2: soil; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Inocybe geophylla (Fr.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
A5S: Far grounds, soil; Fagus sylvatica, HFF, –/–/2013.
Inocybe godeyi Gillet Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
A5S: Far grounds, soil; Fagus sylvatica, HFF, –/–/2013.
Inocybe obscurobadia (J.Favre) Grund & D.E.Stuntz Basidio First record: DG Mitchell (2000)
B3: soil; Cedrus atlantica, DG Mitchell, 03/05/2000. DBN 30: 2000 O1537
Inocybe petiginosa (Fr.) Gillet Basidio First record: HFF (2013)
A5S: Far grounds, soil; Fagus sylvatica, HFF, –/–/2013.
Inocybe rimosa (Bull.) P.Kumm. Basidio First record: HFF & NM (2004)
A4: soil; Betula, HFF & NM, 13/07/2004.
Inonotus hispidus (Bull.) P.Karst. Basidio First record: D Kearns (1970)
NBG: soil; Fraxinus excelsior, D Kearns, 01/09/1970. DBN 17: 1973 Card Index, Scannell
NBG: wood of living tree; Fraxinus excelsior, P Maher, 24/11/1978. DBN 84: 1978 Card Index, Scannell, tree in poor condition, FRDBI 528829
A2: tree trunk; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Elegans Superba’ (1885.011022), MM, 14/09/2005. vide M Maxwell, 13 ix 2005
A2: tree trunk high up; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Elegans Superba’ (1885.011022), E Woodbyrne, –/10/2009.
O1: tree trunk high up; Carya cordiformis (XX.003412), E Woodbyrne, –/10/2009.
O1: trunk high up; Carya cordiformis (XX.003412), MLC & HFF, 23/07/2014.
A2: trunk high up; Fraxinus excelsior ‘Elegans Superba’ (1885.011022), MLC & HFF, 28/02/2015.
Laccaria amethystina Cooke Basidio First record: WW (1803)
NBG: Pine hill, on shady sloping ground in the north; WW, –/–/1803. The name Violet Agaric may refer to Lepista nuda. Considered as a Tricholoma now Lepista peronata. Lepista nuda is still common on shady sloping ground to the north on Pine hill. Wade 1804: 171, Sowerby 1798 vol 2, pl 187, MM 2: 237, 1980; Muskett 6
Laccaria bicolor (Maire) P.D.Orton Basidio First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
A4: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke Basidio First record: MJPS (1979)
P3: soil; Liriodendron tulipifera (XX.007755), MJPS, 09/11/1979. DBN 59:1979 Card Index, Scannell
NBG: soil; Coniferae, MJPS, 26/10/1981. DBN 78: 1981 small, scattered, not abundant
NBG: soil; Coniferae, MJPS, 03/10/1982. DBN 77: 1982
NBG: soil; Coniferae, MJPS, 27/10/1982. DBN 77:1982 Card Index, Scannell
PE: fern bank, peaty humus; DS, 21/11/1989. DBN 6: 1990 ???Tubaria
O1/2: soil; Quercus, MLC & HFF, 01/09/2014.
Lacrymaria lacrymabunda (Bull.) Pat. Basidio First record: GP, MM & HFF (2005)
C4: soil; Poaceae, GP, MM & HFF, 04/10/2005.
NBG: soil; Poaceae, HFF, 15/11/2005.
NBG: soil; Poaceae, MLC & HFF, 13/11/2005.
Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Bondartsev & Singer Basidio First record: M Church (1973)
RR: trunk; Thuja, M Church, 07/06/1973. Card Index, Scannell
AW: trunk; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, MJPS, 29/06/1977. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: trunk; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, PMcD, 05/07/1979. Card Index, Scannell
NBG: trunk; Salix, GP, –/02/1996. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
NBG: trunk; Salix, GP, –/04/1997. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
LA: Laburnum class, trunk; Robinia, GP, –/09/2000. Fungi NBG, Grace Pasley, Slide Collection
AW: trunk; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, MM, 18/01/2005.
AW: trunk; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, NM, –/06/2005. Different Yew tree from year before
LA: Laburnum class, trunk; Robinia, D McNally, 23/05/2005.
LA: Laburnum class, trunk; Robinia, HFF, 24/05/2005.
LA: Laburnum class, trunk; Robinia, MM, 20/05/2005.
LA: Laburnum class, trunk; Robinia, V Martin, –/06/2005.
NBG: trunk; Robinia, M Reid, 25/05/2005.
AW: tree trunk; Taxus baccata ‘Fastigata’, E Woodbyrne, –/10/2009.
NU: south field nursery south wall, trunk; Prunus, S Duffy, 01/07/2015. Phenology tree
Laetisaria fuciformis (McAlpine) Burds. Basidio First record: G Pim & E McWeeney (1893)
NBG: on grass; G Pim & E McWeeney, –/–/1893. Pim & McWeeney, Ir. Nat. 7, 258, 1893, Muskett 157, MM 2: 254, 1980
WI: Football lawn, leaf, dead; Festuca, A Brady, 24/07/1973. Card Index, Scannell, Football lawn, perennial rye, downy fescue, red fescue, crested dogstail.
WI: medium fine lawn plot, leaf; Poaceae, MJPS, 19/09/1984. DBN 83: 1984 Card Index, Scannell
B3: lawn behind herbaceous border, leaf; Poaceae, MJPS, 19/08/1985. DBN 45: 1985 Card Index, Scannell, football lawn
NBG: plots near vegetable garden, leaf; Poaceae, MJPS, 24/09/1987. DBN 61: 1987
C1: close to border path, leaf; Poaceae, MJPS & M Jebb, 23/08/2004. DBN 15: 2004 yellowing patches upto 8 feet across
NBG: leaf; Poaceae, MJPS & M Jebb, 16/08/2005.
Lamprospora crechqueraltii (P.Crouan and H.Crouan) Boud. Asco First record: D McArdle (1897)
NBG: glasshouse, on peat and moss in flower pot; Musci, D McArdle, –/–/1897. ascospores echinulate round 16-18 mu, Saccardo 8: 113-114, 1889 McArdle, Ir. Nat. 6: 165, 1897, Muskett 211, MM 4: 182, 1983, Vega, bryophilous operculate discomycetes, online, 2013.
Orange discomycetes immersed in moss cushions in flower pots in winter to spring are worthwhile collections for microscopy and dissection. The ascus opens by a ruptured apical lid, in this, Octospora and closely related discomycetes.
Lamprospora wrightii (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Seaver Asco First record: M Vega (2013)
EG: Vinery wall, moss mat; Amblystegium serpens, M Vega, 14/04/2013. MV20140414-02 53.3729444,-6.2743861
Lathagrium auriforme (With.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2014)
AW: east steps, mossy stone; Homalothecium sericium, MLC & HFF, –/–/2014. new for NBG
Lathagrium cristatum (L.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin Asco Lichen First record: MLC & HFF (2011)
CLE: mossy floor of cold frame; MLC & HFF, 01/11/2011.
Lecania cyrtella (Ach.) Th.Fr. Asco Lichen First record: HFF (2007)
P5: bark; Davidia involucrata (XX.010509), HFF, 10/01/2007.
A1: twigs shed from canopy; Acer, MLC & HFF, 19/03/2011.
A crustose lichen with a thin exciple, brown epithecium, small discs (500 species for conservation purposes alone is therefore not as high as in a less intensively managed space. Gardens by their nature are aesthetically pretty places, while fungi tend to compromise the look and sometimes the health of specimen plants. There is a conflict of interest unless fungi are prioritised in sections of gardens for conservation. As fungi remain the orphans of Rio, forgotten by wildlife conservation policy makers globally, a policy of fungal conservation is a rare occurrence thus far in the bye-laws of international botanic gardens.
The first fungal records date from the first decade of the 1800s by the notable Walter Wade. He noted 12 fungi, some under names that have undergone subsequent taxonomic revision (Legon & Henrici 2006). Some historic names do not have clear modern taxonomic equivalents. For some taxa reported by Wade, it is now difficult to interpret what species were seen, due to the fact that the literature available in 1800 was patchy and still incomplete, even for very common species. A listing by Taylor (1841) of the Templeton fungi treating 232 species from the North of Ireland, in conjunction with the original archive, is still required as contextual research to understand what fungi were known in Ireland in the first decade of the 19th century. It was not until the monographs by Elias Fries in the 1820s and 1830s that mycology was put on a sound taxonomic footing in terms of Linnaean systematics.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER HERITAGE SITES IN IRELAND
The best developed ‘site’ species inventories for fungi and lichen combined in Ireland are perhaps (a) Brackloon Wood (L8460) near Westport, in West Mayo and (b) Powerscourt Waterfall and Deerpark, (O1912 and O2012) near Enniskerry, in County Wicklow; (c) the Crom Estate (H32), Upper Lough Erne in County Fermanagh and (d) the Killarney National Park (V98), Killarney, County Kerry.
The figures for Brackloon are based on a very rich mushroom foray in the 1910s with a lichen and fungal survey from 1997 to 2000 (Fox et al. 2001) which yielded about 200 lichens, and a combined mycota of about 450 species. As a botanical and mycological taxa biodiversity inventory, adding the bryophyte and plant diversity, brings the Brackloon Wood (of 70ha) to a site total of over 750 species. The species lists were republished by Cunningham (2005).
Powerscourt Waterfall and Deerpark is a compact site and has records of well over 250 lichens and about 100 fungi.
The best recorded ‘square’ inventory for lichens is from the Crom Estate, in square H32, in County Fermanagh, with records of about 300 lichens, and this has some mushroom foray data too.
The Killarney ‘square’ (V98), that includes Muckross, has records of about 500 lichens, and a modest quantity of mushroom data.

PUBLIC AWARENESS OF FUNGI IN GLASNEVIN
A public lecture on the fungi of Glasnevin was presented in 2011, with a broad taxonomic scope, with a list of over 100 contributors to the fungal record dataset. While many staff have contributed, public awareness of this project is quite limited. Hopefully awareness among the specialist mycological community internationally will be enhanced by this publication.

EDIBLE FUNGI IN THE CITY
Certain fungi found in the gardens are edible and these delicacies are tasted occasionally as part of once off gastronomical educational opportunities. On a small number of occasions when fungal poisoning cases have arisen among visitors to the National Botanic Gardens, advice has been on hand at National Botanic Gardens regarding the toxicity of fungi. Advice on poisonous fungi was provided by Howard Fox and Maria Cullen for Irish and UK human poisoning cases via the National Poisons Information Centre, Beaumont Hospital. One of the most interesting edible fungi in the grounds of National Botanic Gardens is a spring species Calocybe gambosa that annually forms mushroom rings. The non-native grey squirrel population, insects including diptera larvae, molluscs including slugs, and perhaps some bird species in the gardens use fungal sporocarps as a food resource.
Common species in the National Botanic Gardens with hallucinogenic properties include Panaeolina foenisecii and Stropharia aeruginosa. There has been one case of fungal poisoning at National Botanic Gardens in recent years. This was of a teenage tourist and probably involved Panaeolina foenisecii. In Irish law, it is currently illegal to possess a range of fungi that contain psychotropic compounds. A report of pancreatic failure in a dog attributed to ingestion of Stropharia aeruginosa in a veterinary case was relayed from a member of the public in 2017 during which the poisonous mushroom determination was confirmed.
Care and ongoing education are required to maintain safety in Ireland for a growing population interested in foraying for edible fungi from nature.

INTRODUCTION OF ALIEN FUNGI
The only obvious established introduction in National Botanic Gardens Dublin is the vivid yellow tropical mushroom Leucocoprinus birnbaumii. This fungus is persistent and has been recorded a number of years. It has not fruited in recent years due to changes in pot plant husbandry for the hot houses. Of all the fungi that could be alien in Ireland, this is the only known established introduced species of fungus to Glasnevin. Other exotic introductions did not survive the move to a garden in Ireland for very long. However, in practical terms, the concept of “native” or “alien” is limited with regard to knowledge or interest in arrival of fungi into Ireland. The exceptions are recent fungal threats of a most serious nature that require quarantine and/or phytosanitary responses e.g. Phytophthora ramorum Werres, de Cock & Man in’t Veld 2001 or Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (T. Kowalski) Baral, Queloz, Hosoya 2014.

EXTINCTIONS
Disturbance of habitat is the main reason for loss of perennial species of lichens and fungi. Hypocenomyce scalaris was seen on Cedrus in 2004 and was lost subsequently as the host tree was considered a safety hazard and it was felled and removed. Likewise, a colony of Octospora musci-muralis was lost from a concrete loading bank, demolished to make a car park. This latter species remains in the area and has appeared each Winter on a mossy walltops near the 83 bus stop in Glasnevin, though it may only occur at one other place in the National Botanic Garden itself.
There are so many extinctions of fungi on garden plants that it is pointless to enumerate them. It is worth stating the fact that an amenity garden such as Glasnevin is generally unsuitable for fungal conservation because there are too many conflicting aims – plant conservation, public safety, necessary aesthetic change and redevelopment and regular garden maintenance – and limited progress is expected unless a specific area is designated and gardened for fungal conservation. The information on the distribution of wild fungi in Glasnevin will need to be maintained regularly and intensively monitored into the future.
Maura Scannell had a rich correspondence with members of staff at the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew and at the then Commonwealth Mycological Institute also at Kew. Loaning of material for monograph preparation, revisions and other work is part of the supportive tradition among the National Herbarium network.
Over the years, many species new to science have been described from type specimens collected in Botanic Gardens from around the world. In this category Dothiorella davidiae is a fungus described new to science with a type collection made by Maura Scannell from the National Botanic Gardens in Dublin. This species is common in the grounds at Glasnevin and it has been frequently recollected during the 1970s and 1980s and it persists.
In our case, fungal specimens have been collected by visiting mycologists Asbjørn Hagen (rusts), Bruce Ing (microfungi) and Jerry Cooper (microfungi) during visits to Ireland. Some specialists have lodged voucher specimens at DBN after identification and this is most helpful.

METRICS FOR SPECIES DENSITY AND RARITY IN URBAN HABITATS
More realistic and objective measures of species rarity in urban habitats will continue to be of interest into the future. The population of Evernia prunastri in 2016 is held on less than 10 bushes and trees in 19ha in this garden. As this site has an area of almost 50 acres, and we have a mycota of >500 species, it is be possible to do studies on record densities in the site over the decades that have elapsed since recording began. In general, the presence of many species on the site are temporarily transient, and these species are not seen since originally recorded.
To set out a more objective measure of rarity; consider this example. With a density of 1 carpophore of 2 grams and 1 species seen on 1 day in a 20 hectare site over an observation period of 1801 to 2017 (217 years, 365 days); one gets a biomass metric containing a spatio-temporal species density in the area of the gardens of 2 grams per 1000m x 200m over circa 70,000 days. If one considers that one agaric mushroom carpophore might appear once in three years in the 20ha grounds and be seen – this could be recalculated as more objective metric of rarity – say 2 grams of a species, per 20 hectares, per 1000 days.
Since the project became formalised as an objective in April 2011, some 1000 days have elapsed. 1700 observations have been made recording 400 species since 1st April 2011 to 5th January 2015. Let us consider another example. Lichen biomasses are tiny – the sample of Usnea subfloridana, was perhaps 1cm3 and 1gram, in a site with a canopy height of 5 metres to 20 metres over 20 hectares – 500m x 400m x say 5m – a volume of 1,000,000 cubic metres, so say 1 gram per million cubic metres of a urban garden. One would hope that Usnea subfloridana densities are more than 1 gram per 106 cubic meters in the 104 days that have elapsed since an initial lichen survey in April 1976 to 31st December 2014, of a rural nature reserve.

CONCLUSIONS
This paper describing the biodiversity of an urban arboretum ought not to be misused in journalistic arguments as an endorsement of the conservation quality of this garden. It should not either be used to celebrate the magnitude of biodiversity, for the lack of urban sites of comparable recording intensity, such a rich legacy of concentrated and recorded movements of plants. Our baseline study is an opportunity to develop new science with population metrics suitable to demonstrate the phenomenon of the change in epiphytic lichen populations and changing air pollution levels over the decades near city centres.

The data may be used to explore mushroom population characteristics in urban arboreta, in a scientifically realistic manner, as hoped for in the science of Aldo Leopold’s Sand County Almanac. This book emphasizes the perception of scientific reality among conservationists of the relative importance of (1) native natural habitats over (2) rural low intensity farmed landscapes over (3) urban university campuses. Clearly the National Botanic Gardens is a sector of urban landscape, analogous to a university campus.

It would be a misinterpretation of this data from National Botanic Gardens to claim that urban biodiversity is adequately conserved by this heritage garden through intensive management, though this could change with increasing habitat stability and some policy ideas beneficial to fungi and lichens. Over 200 species reported have remained undetected in the last 16 years, and are therefore putatively extinct in the gardens. While the staff of National Botanic Gardens are involved in important conservation and educational activities in an urban habitat, we are of the view that while ‘a garden grows more than a gardener sows’. For this reason, and even though urban heritage gardens, by their nature, do not make for any mycological ‘Garden of Eden’, they are underutilized resources in training and education about the roles, diversity and beauty of fungi.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research would have been impossible but for the intense scholarship of the late Maura Scannell (d. 2011) who studied the fungi of the grounds and made start with this research with her card index of 600 species of fungi from Ireland, with 150 species from the grounds. We are honoured to cite Maura as a posthumous co-author of this paper, because the credit for initiating this project was is due to her.
We are also indebted to the late A.E. Muskett (d. 1984) who catalogued the Irish mycological literature. For fungal record bioinformatic skills we acknowledge Paul Kirk and Jerry Cooper who developed the mycorec utility and maintain the FRDBI database.
We are grateful to the many mycologists, gardeners and students who have made fungal collections and observations in the National Botanic Gardens, over the decades since records began in 1801. We are indebted to all of the people who have left to the Government of Ireland a legacy of fungal specimens and records in the herbarium archives available for use in biodiversity studies.
Special thanks are due to Tony O’Doherty and Sr. Vivienne Keely whose books stimulated our social history research in the Glasnevin area.
We are grateful to Liz Brennan, Plant Records Officer, National Botanic Gardens who provided database searches for plant label data records from the garden plant catalogue, and to Liam Lysaght, Director, National Biodiversity Data Centre who provided database searches for fungal records from their biodiversity databases, for their interest and assistance with this project. We are also very grateful to our parents and to Nick, Zoe and Roanna Hilliard for their kindness and help.
To our peer reviewers and readers – Dr. Paul Kirk, Dr. David Minter, Dr. James Lendemer, Dr. Robert Loeb, Dr. Sophia Millington-Ward and Tony O’Doherty for all of your advice and words of encouragement, we thank you most sincerely.

COMPETING INTERESTS
The authors declare they do not have financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.
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Letters (on fungi) from small islands – comparisons from around the world.

Howard F. FOX, National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, D09 VY63, Dublin, Ireland.
Maria L. CULLEN, Barrow Herbarium, Ballyanne, New Ross, County Wexford

BIODIVERSITY INVENTORY
Inventorying the botany of small islands is a satisfying objective of field studies in nature.
In addition to the need for the botanical synopsis of an island to be visually tractable, all the major habitat types, that walking can determine are present on a small island, need to be screened for component species. Voucher specimens preserved in herbaria provide the basis for the scientific decision making of identification of species.
Since HF and MC began our lifelong botanical quests in 1987 and 1995 respectively, we have endeavoured to incorporate our scientific observations in their appropriate botanical context. Identification is time consuming work from first principles of consulting type specimens in herbaria, but is more rapid in taxonomically well documented biomes, where original acts of scholarship are documented and copied from book to book.

IRELAND AND HER OFFSHORE ISLANDS
We began this quest in Ireland, focussing on offshore islands (Lambay, Clare Island, Inishbofin, Inishturk, Foynes Island, Tory Island, Bere Island, Cape Clear Island, Inishtrahull, Sherkin Island, Great Saltee, Achill Beg, Skellig Michael) accessible by boat and by ferry. Kayakers have landed on many more smaller offshore islands, and in some places, botanical exploration on some Irish offshore islands is still scant.

SAINT LUCIA & JAMAICA
In our experience, the mycology of Saint Lucia and Jamaica will require several more rounds of revision, prior to satisfactory knowledge is assembled. There is potential for species new to science to be found here, as well as many species already described with a wider that hitherto known distributional range. We are building on the science of the late Edward Vainio, the late Henry Imshaug, Harrie Sipman, Andre Aptroot, Marcela Cacares and other taxonomists what have collected and considered botanical specimens from Saint Lucia, Jamaica, and similar iso-climatic habitats in sub-tropical and tropical zones of the Caribbean and Central American neotropics, as well as all around the world.

NEW CALEDONIA, TAHITI, MOOREA AND NIUE ISLAND
The mycology of Nouvelle Caledonie is at a relatively advanced stage. Numerous taxa are understood from voucher specimens preserved in PC in the metropole and NOU locally. Jean Mouchacca, John Elix, Patrick McCarthy, Robert Lucking and others have built upon the scientific infrastructure of William Nylander, various French 19th century mycologists and the late Rolf Santesson. The exploration of French Polynesia is uneven, and while Tahiti has a long list, information from Moorea is modest. An overview by John Elix and Patrick McCarthy shows a wide tropical diversity in the central Pacific. Niue Island has been explored mycologically in our studies of voucher materials kept in Ireland.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITIES
The festival for the Transit of Venus at Pointe Venus in Tahiti in June 2012 demonstrated the lack of scientific instruments in daily use by natives of the Pacific Islands. Most optical instruments and telescopes were operated by native French scientists. Such can be said for the Atlantic Ocean and the offshore islands of Ireland and in the Eastern and central Caribbean. A botanical herbarium is kept in Saint Lucia by the Forestry Department in Union, south of Castries. A website for plant species identification by Roger Graveson is instrumental in promoting Saint Lucian botany. Similar resources are not obvious in Jamaica. In Ireland, since 2000 there has been a renaissance in taxonomic resources online, starting with Stuart Dunlop’s 2003 to 2007 Donegal Hedgerow. Many other sites have grown up alongside the NBDC at Carriganure, Waterford and the GBIF mined resources that computerised Ireland’s biodiversity information. The development of third level colleges and universities in Noumea, Alofi, Papete, Suva, Morne Fortune, Mona, and so on, provide the potential for botanical research on fungi to grow, and the virtual herbarionauts of Paris will help accelerate this aspect of mycology.

THE LAUDATO SI OF POPE FRANCIS AND CONSERVATION
We are still left with the primacy of nature as a creator of species of interest to the scientific enlightenment, the need for conservation of nature first, and the availability of specimens in the museum and private sector for study, to enable all this scientific infrastructure to be generated. In addition to google, we still need the minds of people, who express the wit and the curiosity and willingness to curate knowledge as an altruistic act for society. The burning of the Amazon, with fires set on 10th August 2019, show the resistance to the wise use of forest resources. This is an example from in the Lusophone tropics, primary forest burning and ancient forest clearance is something that occurs in every townland, even in 2019 as close to home as in Corracloona, in County Leitrim in Ireland, an ethic which needs to be challenged effectively by all humanity.

Republished by lichenfoxie. Text for a poster at the European Mycological Congress, Warsawa, Poland, September 2019.

Howard Fox on Dante’s endgame in the Amazon

In reading The Dipper’s Acclaim and other essays again in the last fortnight, I am making distillate of a vision of John Feehan’s inspirational text and how it moderates mine. John has of course four major books Slieve Bloom, Laois, Bogs of Ireland and Farming in Ireland, in addition to his spiritual reflections on Laudato Si. This last book has been our recommended reading at the Corracloona Old School, Kiltyclougher, in County Leitrim, this week.

This latter book concern is the ecological conversion from the Augustinian to the Franciscan view of nature. The land use conflict and extinction turmoil that this change in philosophical guidance is attempting to moderate is devastating, as seen by soy and beef farming and the fires set in the Amazon on 10th August 2019, Dante’s endgame. The destruction of nature is the financial crime of the millennium.

The taxonomic tools we have for understanding the organization of nature is won by studying the morphology of species alive in the Amazon and nature everywhere in the global forest. We have had scholars of Brazil like Vainio in 1890 and Cacares 2011. Now she is organizing a lichen congress in Brazil in 2020 with the blessing of the International Association of Lichenologists’. These scholars have set a framework for the comprehension of the Amazon from the perspective of the genera and species of lichens on tree bark, intellectual insight showing that the Amazon is tractable and not to be feared. Lusophone literature on the Amazon shows the cultural abuses against nature have at least half a millenium’s lead in.

Taking the townland of Corracloona on the lakeshore of Upper Lough Mac Nean in North Letirim on the shore road between Glenfarne and Kiltyclougher where I am currently installed as a lichen studying hermit, I want to explore some insights on these topical concerns in my usual way.

Consider the lilies

It is not complexity rather the elegance

of plant parts, their veining and their form

That provides us with a congruence of consanguinity

Units of composition, order and harmony

That reveals our wonder in

The taxonomic aspiration for species

Consider the lilies

A bog myrtle and a sedge

Myrica gale and Carex panicea

The utricles in September

Transcending inference and analogy

A hopeful contemplation for the future

New to science once, but from nature first,

Predicted in another place

Open to another mind

Genetic readings of a plant part

A synapomorphic insight

in our vigil on life.

Ask not what you can do

The leap of recognition

A signal of joy

Of an encounter

With a specimen

Of a species

Known from literature before

New to us, admitted to our skeptical reality.

The extinction of micro-habitats of species

In the Amazon inferno

and across the masai warrior

plains of the pale of Ireland

Is the crisis and war of our time

Cast this injunction

In the extinction rebellion

To temper the flames

We apprehend you

Slow you with a sample

Of nature herself

The latin binomial

Of a novelty

only encountered in nature

Fathomable facets

Of a townland

A hopeful contemplation

for the future

Beyond the inferno

Forest bureaucratically dismissed

as farmland

the financial crime

of the millennium.

Howard Fox

5 September 2019

Lughnadhsa

LIn the hall, the scribes quietly put pencil to paper.

The North West is one of those dark places in our landscape. The moor on Thur Mountain has to be traversed to get to Manor, as the crow flies from the Black Pig’s Dyke at a ford west of Upper Lough Mac Nean. The walkers, to this haven, have picked the day before the grouse shoot opens. Frochans are barely ripe, with a green powdery bloom on the berries. Sika Deer in the woods of Corracloona know these mountain trails well. The first part of this walk follows a burbling stream, up through hazel and beech with mushrooms, then into the eyrie Sitka Spruce. A fire had claimed some young trees, years before, and the desolation of charred Spruce made for a relatively easy traverse.

At the bridge, there is another bothar heading up Thur Mountain. We are aiming to the right, making sure we hit the pass for Manor. The weather is improving today, and the midges are not part of our irritations. Walking into the heather, Oisin picks some buds of Bog Myrtle and makes a lozenge from them. He will taste this, until he lunches on cais, a Queen Maeve’s hard version. The story goes that in battle Maeve was hit on the head with a hard cheese, was concussed and died. Not an easy way to go …

Howard Fox, 11 August 2019